Honan Chapel: Difference between revisions

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The three light window on the west wall, above the main entrance door, shows a triptych of [[St.Brigid]], [[St. Patrick]], and [[St. Columcille]], with a base of five [[lilly]]s under Patrick's light. Brigid is depicted along side a [[bovine|calf]], Patrick with a [[shamrock]] in his right hand, and Columcille alongside two flying [[doves]].{{sfn|Costigan|Cullen|2019|pp=77-78}}
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The three light window on the west wall, above the main entrance door, shows a triptych of [[St. Brigid]], [[St. Patrick]] and [[St. Columcille]], with a base of five [[lilly]]s under Patrick's light. Brigid is depicted along side a [[bovine|calf]], Patrick with a [[shamrock]] in his right hand, and Columcille alongside two flying [[doves]]. The Brigid light is especially detailed and contains an angel at the top of the window, and another four hovering at its foot. The writer Lucy Costigan suggests that the lilies may represent Brigid's miracles, prophesies, prayers and charities. {{sfn|Costigan|Cullen|2019|pp=77-78}}
   
 
===An Túr Gloine===
 
===An Túr Gloine===

Revision as of 00:02, 13 October 2019

Honan Chapel
Collegiate Chapel of St Finbarr[1]
Honan Chape front.jpg
Chapel front, facing the student centre
51°53′37″N 8°29′22″W / 51.8935°N 8.4895°W / 51.8935; -8.4895Coordinates: 51°53′37″N 8°29′22″W / 51.8935°N 8.4895°W / 51.8935; -8.4895
LocationUCC campus
CountryIreland
DenominationRoman Catholic
History
DedicationFin Barre of Cork
Architecture
Architect(s)James F. McMullen and John O'Connell[2][3]
StyleArts and Crafts movement
Groundbreaking1915
Completed1916

The Honan Chapel (Irish: Séipéal Uí Eonáin,[4] formally Saint Finbarr's Collegiate Chapel), is a Catholic collegiate church built in the Celtic-Romanesque style located on the grounds of University College Cork, Ireland. It was designed by leading members of the Celtic Revival and Irish Arts and Crafts movement, many of whom incorporated elements of the Art Nouveau style.

The chapel was commissioned by John Robert O'Connell, the executor of the estate of Isabella Honan, the last member of a wealthy Catholic Cork family who donated substantial amounts of money to the college. O'Connell oversaw its architecture, the design of its exterior carvings and statuettes, and its interior windows, floor, furniture and liturgical collection.

The chapel building was designed by James F. McMullen, and built by John Sisk and Sons. Today it mostly known for it interiors, including the mosaic flooring, altar plates, liturgical collection, and especially its nineteen stained glass windows; eleven of which were designed and installed by Harry Clarke, and which have been described by the art historian Nicola Gordon Bowe as "arguably his greatest work in stained glass".[5] A further eight windows were designed by A. E. Child, Catherine O'Brien and Ethel Rhind of "An Túr Gloine" (The Glass Tower) cooperative studio, founded by Sarah Purser in 1903.

Background

Population growth and migration in the early 20th century led to the development of a number of suburbs around Cork city. This necessitated the building of churches to serve the people living in the new urban areas, and the Honan was the first church built in Cork in the new century. The reasons for its development were very different to those for other contemporary churches, resulting from a longstanding educational disagreement between the Protestant and Catholic hierarchies.[6] Queens College Cork, known as University College Cork (UCC) since 1911, was incorporated in 1845 as part of a series of new universities known as the Queen's Colleges,[6] under a charter that excluded Catholic students.[7] This ended in 1911 when the Queen's Colleges folded as legal entities, and as a result students of both denominations were allowed to attend. The Irish Universities Act of 1908 stipulated that government funding could not be allocated towards "any church, chapel, or other place of religious worship or observance".[8] These terms were seen by some as restrictive on Catholic students, including Sir Bertram Windle,[2] the university's president, and John O'Connell (1868-1943), a Celtic revivalist, member of the Irish Arts and Crafts Committee, fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries, and member of the Royal Irish Academy,[2][6] who described the act as "absurd and scandalous".[9][10] The 1908 legislation meant that any centre for Catholic students in an Irish university could only be attained through private funding.[6]

Isabella Honan (née Cunningham, b. 1861) was the sister-in-law of Robert Honan, the last male heir of a wealthy merchant family who had made their money in the 19th century as butter merchants.[11][12] When Robert died in 1909, he left his fortune to Isabella, who gave £10,000 in trust to O'Connell, stipulating that the money should be used to fund a centre of worship for Catholic students in UCC.[13] When she died in August 1913, she bequeathed a further £40,000 for various causes in the city and county, and named O'Connell as the sole executor of her will. These monies became known as the Honan Fund,[14][15] and were intended for charitable and educational purposes in Cork.[16]

O'Connell used some of the money to fund scholarships for Catholic students at UCC,[10] and acquired the site of St Anthony's Hall (also known as Berkley Hall)[17] from the Franciscan order[18] to develop an accommodation block for male Catholic students (becoming known as the Honan Hostel).[2][A]

O'Connell's interest was in ecclesiastical archaeology,[10] and he was acquainted with several members of the Irish Arts and Crafts and Celtic revival movements. He sought not just to contravene to the 1908 act, but to construct a chapel that was "something more than merely sufficient...a church designed and fashioned on the same lines and on the same plan as those which their forefathers had built for their priests and missioners all over Ireland nearly a thousand years ago."[9] O'Connell, who became a priest in 1929 after the death of his wife, disliked the contemporary approach to church building, which he described as "machine made" and international in style, preferring a coherence nationalist approach to style and form, produced with the finest craftsmanship that was uniquely Irish in character.[19] He aspired that work on the chapel was "carried out in Cork, by Cork labour and with materials obtained from the City or County of Cork".[19] The chapel and its grounds were created as a separate legal entity to the university.[16]

O'Connell was assisted by Windle, who provided political and other supports.[2]

The chapel is dedicated to Cork's patron Saint Finbarr, patron saint of the city and of the Diocese of Cork.[7][20] The grounds are reputedly located close to an early Christian monastic site founded by Finbarr.[21]

Construction

The Cork-based firm of James Finbarre McMullen and Associates were the main architects on the project.[22] Their other works in the city include the Eye, Ear & Throat Hospital, Western Rd. (1897), St. Finbarre's West Total Abstinence Club, Bandon Road (1900), and remodelling at Holy Trinity Church, Fr. Mathew Quay (1908).[23] The contractor John Sisk, also of Cork, was the principal builder,[22] and completed the build on 18 May 1915 at a cost of £8,000.[B][24]

The building's plans were drawn in 1914, and the foundation stone laid on 18 May 1915 by Thomas A. O'Callaghan D.D., Bishop of Cork.[25] The stone reads, in part, that the chapel was built "by the charity of Isabella Honan for the scholars and students of Munster".[24]

The chapel was consecrated on 5 November 1916, the year most of its decorative features were designed or installed. The final windows were placed in situ in 1917.[19]

Architecture

Tympanum with statue of St. Finbarr

The Honan was one of the first modern Irish churches whose thematic design was not directed by the clergy. O'Connell rejected international and industrial production methods, and instead sought a return to small scale, more personalised, handicraft.[26][2] While O'Connell's main inspiration for the building was early medieval architecture, a number of recently built churches in County Cork informed his choices, in particular Timoleague's parish church and the chapel in Gougane Barra.[27] Built by John Sisk and Sons of Cork, the chapel's architectural style is Celtic-Romanesque.[13] It does not contain aisles or transepts, while the six-bay [22] rectangular nave is rather plain.[9] Compared to the decorative and sculpted elements of the chapel, the architecture is austere and modest.[28] Functionally, the chapel lacks shrines where people could light candles or place flowers near devotional images, making it similar to a Protestant rather than a Catholic church.[29] Its round bell-tower (campanile) and circular-plan are inspired by the round towers found in Irish monastic settlements from the 9th century.[22] The entrance is on the west gable, approached via double-hinged wrought iron gates.[22]

The nave, as seen from the doorway. The window of Our Lord is visible above the altar

The doorway is capped by three limestone ribbed vaults,[30] supported by capitals containing reliefs of the heads of six Munster saints: Finnbarr of Cork, Coleman of Cloyne; Gobnet of Ballyvourney; Brendan of Kerry, Declán of Ardmore; and Íte of Killeedy.[30] Each figure was later represented in the stained glass windows.

The timber doorway designed a protective iron grille which has since been removed. It was designed by the architect William Scott, along with the iron hinges, sanctuary lamp, and altar plate.[21] The doorway leads into a small oblong nave (72 x 28 feet), within a timber barrel vaulted ceiling, that ends at a square ended area around the altar (chancel) (26 x 18 feet).[25] The sacristy is located on the left (north) side looking towards the altar and is positioned under the bell tower.[25]

Stained glass windows

The chapel contains 19 stained glass windows. The nave is lined with six at either side, three in the west gable, and four in the chancel.[31] O'Connell deliberately placed Harry Clarke and Sarah Purser's An Túr Gloine studio in competition for the window's commission.[32] After he was sent Clarke's initial designs for the St. Gobnait window, O'Connell immediately a total of eleven windows, out of a planned nineteen.[33]

The Clarke and Túr Gloine's windows contain very similar subject matter imagery, but vastly differ in style,[31] and can be told apart on viewing because Clarke's are highly detailed, while An Túr Gloine's are deliberately simple. Both studios were asked to depict Gaelic saints from the "golden age" of Christianity in Ireland.[34] In today's chapel they are, from the right of the nave looking in: St. Finn Barr (Clarke), St. Albert (Clarke), St. Declan (Clarke), St. Albert (Clarke), St. Fauchtna (Child), and St. Munchin (O'Brien). To the left looking in are images of: St. Ita (Clarke), St. Coleman (Child), St. Brendan (Clarke), St. Gobnait (Clarke), St. Flannan (O'Brien), and St. Carthage (Rhind).[35] Both studios publicly displayed their cartoons in Dublin before they were physically realised in Cork. Both shows were highly praised, and lead to some debate among art critics as to which sets were superior. In 1955, the Irish Michael J. O'Kelly summarised that each of the Honan windows are high quality and worthy of individual consideration. While his notes especially single windows designed by A. E. Child, O'Kelly believes that preferences come down to matters of personal taste.[36]

Harry Clarke

Clarke was in his early 20s at the time of the Honan commission. The windows were his first to be installed in a public space, and established his reputation as a significant international artist.[33] His Honan designs are characterised by deep and rich colourisation, and simplified, often whimsical forms which are nevertheless highly stylised and evoke, in the words of the writer M. J. O'Kelly, "the spirit of the ancient Celt".[37] The designs blend Catholic iconography with motifs and events from Celtic mythology[38] in a style that draws heavily from Art Nouveau, in particular the darker, fin de siècle works of Aubrey Beardsley, Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele.[39]

Saint Finbarr

It is unlikely he would have attained the Honan commission if not for O'Connell's ability to keep decision making on the chapel's design in secular hands.[39] Especially his merging of Catholic and early medieval imagery in such a modern and individualised style was at odds with prevailing trends in Irish church art.[40][27] According to scholar Luke Gibbons, freedom "from episcopal interference...enabled Clarke to exploit vernacular traditions of local saints...that belonged more to legend and folklore than church teachings, and whose popular appeal lay outside the highly centralised power of post-famine Ultramontane Catholicism."[39]

Detail of the Gobnait window, 1916
Clark's original cartoon for the Gobnait window, detail, 1914

Clarke's panels contain a multitude of Celtic designs and motifs, and are filled with figures and incidents from the life of each saint. The most obvious Celtic embellishments are Mary's red hair and green halo, and Brendan's pampooties.[39] The light of St. Albert of Cashel, who wears a purple chasuble, crimson stole and a bishop's mitre, contains several Celtic motifs, including the bronze spirals placed around his hair and beard.[41]

His depictions often describe magical or supernatural feats associated with the saint, which Gibbon describes as daring inclusions, given such deeds owe more to the subject's "'trickster' pagan powers" than "respectable traits of virtue and holiness."[39] The St. Gobnait window, located on the north side of the chapel, depicts the Celtic goddess with a pale, thin, ascetic[31] and unmistakably Irish face. She is dressed in blueish, purple robes, which are adorned with jewels. [31] Her right arm is outstretched in an overall pose that draws heavily from Beardsley.[38] Her image, according to Wilson, is the strongest and "most fantastical" of the collection. Gobnait was both a plague healer and the patron saint of bees; the panels contain giant insects and tiny representation of the thieves said to have tried to rob her.[38] According to the Irish novelist E. Œ. Somerville, her images conjures late 19th century decadence in its resemblance to an Aubrey Beardsley type female face, which "though horrible [is] so modern & conventionally unconventional...[Clarke's] windows have a kind of hellish splendour."[42]

Other windows include a representation of St. Brendan alongside a grotesque, claw limbed image of Judas Iscariot.[34] Some of the windows came close to being destroyed during the 1916 Easter Rising before they were moved to Cork.[38] Before the windows were installed, the cartoons were displayed at his Dublin studio, where they were praised by contemporary art critics.[43][C] One reviewer described them as "remarkable" and a "distinct advance on anything which has been heretofore done in Ireland in stained glass", and compared them to French medieval glass, including those in the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle.[29] In particular, his blending of bold and often dark colours have been praised, especially in the effects they achieve in morning light.[44] The designer Percy Oswald Reeves highlighted the windows for their "beauty of ...colour, quality and treatment of each piece of glass."[45]

The three light window on the west wall, above the main entrance door, shows a triptych of St. Brigid, St. Patrick and St. Columcille, with a base of five lillys under Patrick's light. Brigid is depicted along side a calf, Patrick with a shamrock in his right hand, and Columcille alongside two flying doves. The Brigid light is especially detailed and contains an angel at the top of the window, and another four hovering at its foot. The writer Lucy Costigan suggests that the lilies may represent Brigid's miracles, prophesies, prayers and charities. [46]

An Túr Gloine

Honan window, An Túr Gloine, c. 1916

The cartoons for An Túr Gloine (Irish: The Glass Tower) windows were, like those from Clarke's studio, designed in Dublin. Purser formed and financing the influential workshop in 1903.[5] Under her management, it often competed for commissions against Clarke.[47] The eight windows are attributed to A. E. Child (St. Ailbe, St. Fachtna and St. Coleman), Catherine O'Brien (St. John, St. Flannan and St. Munchin), and Ethel Rhind with (St. Carthagh).[37]

Although the Túr Gloine designs are similar to Clark's in subject matter, they are very different in style. The windows are minimalist in line and colour, consisting of a dominating but simplicity rendered and naturalistic central figure rendered in pale hues,[31] surrounded by uncomplicated, largely empty opaque sub-panels. The most prominently placed window is Child's "Our Lord", positioned above the altar, on the east gable.[31] Child depicts the risen Christ in simple forms and subdued colours appropriate to his strong but dignified facial expression. O'Kelly's describes the portrait of Christ's eyes "as look out on humanity with a welcoming and understanding sympathy."[48]

Artwork and liturgical collection

O'Connell commissioned the Cork firm of Egan & Sons for the altar plate and vestments. He had a strong view on how the chapel should present and was keen that its artwork would draw from Ireland's ancient culture. In this, he was heavily influenced by 19th century antiquarian's research into early Christian and early medieval traditions and art, in particular the early medieval metal and stone works, and illuminated manuscripts at the time being newly discovered. He sought that the Honan would further reflect and promote the earlier period's emergent influence on Irish literature and visual culture.[19]

The mosaic flooring was designed and installed by a German firm lead by the English resident Ludwig Oppenheimer. It is decorated with symbols the zodiac,[49] and images based on the Christian theme of the "River of Life",[22][50] as well as depictions of flora, fauna, and river scenes.[15] The names of seamstresses from the Egan workshop, formerly in 32 Patrick St. Cork, are embroidered in the lining of some of the textile commissions.[51]

The altar consists of a plain slab of Irish limestone, which O'Connell chose as a deliberate contrast to the ornately carved Italian marble then in fashion.[19] It rests on a five legged table, each leg is lined with a type of Irish crucifix.[36]

The chapel's tabernacle contains enamels by the Irish craftsman and stained glass specialist Oswald Reeves.[52][22] The pipe organ is located on the west wall. It is situated in a timber frame,[22] and was built by Wicklow native Kenneth Jones.[49]

The tympanum framing the entrance was designed by the Irish artist Oliver Sheppard, and is dominated by a sculpture of St. Finbarr dressed in bishop's vestments.[30]

In 1986, the sculptor Imogen Stuart re-designed the altar, pulpit, priest's chair and baptismal font.

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ While the chapel remains standing, the nearby Honan Hostel accommodation building (opened 1914) was demolished and replaced by the O'Rahilly Humanities Building (opened 1998). See UCC Conservation plan
  2. ^ In 1996, Sisk's company were contractors on the O'Rahilly Building project - a complex built on the site of the former Honan Hostel that stood between 1914 and 1991. See UCC website
  3. ^ Clarke's career in stained glass peaked early; from the mid 1920 he was preoccupied with legacy commissions left over from his father's workshop. See Gordon Bowe (1985), p. 36

Notes

  1. ^ "Honan Chapel History". honanchapel.com. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Leland 2004.
  3. ^ Larmour 1992.
  4. ^ "Honan Chapel - Séipéal Uí Eonáin". UCC. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  5. ^ a b Gordon Bowe 1985, p. 39.
  6. ^ a b c d O'Callaghan 2016, p. 163.
  7. ^ a b Baker 1999, p. 165.
  8. ^ "Irish Universities Act, 1908". irishstatutebook.ie. Government of Ireland. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  9. ^ a b c J.J.H. 1916, p. 613.
  10. ^ a b c Good, Wendy (3 November 2016). "UCC's Honan Chapel celebrates centenary". Cork Independent. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  11. ^ O'Connell 1916, p. 11.
  12. ^ Ryan 2016, p. 3.
  13. ^ a b O'Callaghan 2016, p. 164.
  14. ^ O'Connell 1916.
  15. ^ a b Leyland, Mary (25 January 2010). "An Irishwoman's Diary". Irish Times. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  16. ^ a b Wilson 2013, p. 24.
  17. ^ 90th anniversary of the dedication of the Honan Chapel, Cork (PDF) (Report). University College Cork. 5 November 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2017.
  18. ^ Fennessy 2014–15, p. 282.
  19. ^ a b c d e Wilson 2018, p. 21.
  20. ^ MacErlean, Andrew ""St. Finbar". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. Retrieved 8 September 2019
  21. ^ a b Wilson 2013, p. 25.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h NIAH 2000.
  23. ^ "McMullen, James Finbarre". DIA. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  24. ^ a b O'Callaghan 2016, p. 165.
  25. ^ a b c O'Kelly 1950, p. 291.
  26. ^ Wilson 2018, p. 20.
  27. ^ a b J.J.H. 1916, p. 612.
  28. ^ O'Kelly 1950, p. 293.
  29. ^ a b Wilson 2018, p. 25.
  30. ^ a b c O'Kelly 1950, p. 292.
  31. ^ a b c d e f O'Kelly 1950, p. 294.
  32. ^ Kennedy 2015, p. 99.
  33. ^ a b Gordon Bowe 1979, p. 99.
  34. ^ a b Wilson 2018, p. 28.
  35. ^ "The Honan Chapel & Collection - Virtual Tour". University College Cork. Archived from the original on 29 October 2017.
  36. ^ a b O'Kelly 1950, p. 294-295.
  37. ^ a b O'Kelly 1950, p. 295.
  38. ^ a b c d Wilson 2018, p. 19.
  39. ^ a b c d e Gibbons 2018, p. 332.
  40. ^ Wilson 2018, p. 29.
  41. ^ Costigan & Cullen 2019, p. 57.
  42. ^ Gibbons 2018, p. 332-333.
  43. ^ Costigan, Lucy. "The Honan Chapel, Cork City". Harryclarke.net. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  44. ^ Costigan & Cullen 2010, p. 97.
  45. ^ Gordon Bowe 1985, p. 36.
  46. ^ Costigan & Cullen 2019, pp. 77-78.
  47. ^ Gibbons 2018, p. 311.
  48. ^ O'Kelly 1950, p. 294-5.
  49. ^ a b McClatchie 2006, p. 14.
  50. ^ Field 2006.
  51. ^ "Forgotten Faces of Art: The women of the Honan Chapel". UCC. 24 May 2016.
  52. ^ Larmour 1992, p. 186.

Sources

  • Baker, R. A. (1999). "Rev. William Hincks (1794-1871) and the Early Development of Natural History at Queen's College (University College), Cork". The Irish Naturalists' Journal. Irish Naturalists' Journal. 26 (5/6). JSTOR 25536241.
  • Costigan, Lucy; Cullen, Michael (2019). Dark Beauty: Hidden Detail in Harry Clarke’s Stained Glass. Irish Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-7853-7233-9.
  • Costigan, Lucy; Cullen, Michael (2010). Strangest Genius: The Stained Glass of Harry Clarke. The History Press. ISBN 978-1-8458-8971-5.
  • Fennessy, Ignatius (2014–15). "Some Papers Concerning Brother Jarlath Prendergast, OFM, and also St Anthony's Hostel, Cork". Collectanea Hibernica. Irish Province of the Society of Jesus. 46/47. JSTOR 30004738.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  • Field, Robert (2006). "L. Oppenheimer Ltd And The Mosaics Of Eric Newton" (PDF). Tiles and Architectural Ceramics Society. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  • Gibbons, Luke (2018). "Afterword: 'Cloistral Silverviened', Harry Clarke and the Intensely Modern". In Griffith, Angela; Kennedy, Róisín; Helmers, Marguerite (eds.). Harry Clarke and Artistic Visions of the New Irish State. Irish Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-7885-5045-1.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  • Gordon Bowe, Nicola (1988). "Wilhelmina Geddes, Harry Clarke, and Their Part in the Arts and Crafts Movement in Ireland". The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts. 8. JSTOR 1503970.
  • Gordon Bowe, Nicola (1985). "The Arts and Crafts Society of Ireland (1894-1925) with particular reference to Harry Clarke". The Journal of the Decorative Arts Society 1850 - the Present. 9. JSTOR 41809143.
  • Gordon Bowe, Nicola (1979). A Monograph and Catalogue Published to Coincide with the Exhibition "Harry Clarke", 12 November to 8 December 1979 at the Douglas Hyde Gallery". Douglas Hyde Gallery, Trinity College.
  • J.J.H. (1916). "Reviewed Work: The Honan Hostel Chapel, Cork. Some Notes on the Building and the Ideals which inspired it by John R. O'Connell". Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review. Franciscan Province of Ireland. 5 (20). JSTOR 25701079.
  • Kennedy, Róisín (2015). "The Revival and Visual Art – Harry Clarke's Geneva Window" (PDF). University College Dublin. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  • Larmour, Paul (1992). The Arts and Crafts Movement in Ireland. Belfast: Friar's Bush Press. ISBN 978-0-9468-7253-4.
  • Leland, Mary (2004). "Relics of a resurgent Ireland". irishtimes.com. Irish Times. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  • McClatchie, Katherine, ed. (2006). Guide to Protected Structures in Cork City (PDF) (Report). Cork City Council.
  • NIAH (2000). "Honan Chapel, Donovan Road, Cork, Cork City". buildingsofireland.ie. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  • O'Callaghan, Antóin (2016). The Churches of Cork City. Dublin: The History Press Ireland. ISBN 978-1-845-88893-0.
  • O'Connell, John Robert (1916). The Honan Hostel Chapel Cork: Some Notes on the Building and the Ideas which Inspired It. Cork: Guy & Company.
  • O'Kelly, M. J. (1950). "The Honan Chapel". The Furrow. 1 (6). JSTOR 27655609.
  • Ryan, Niamh (2016). "Made in Cork, The Arts & Crafts Movement 1880s-1920s," (PDF). Crawford Art Gallery. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  • Wilson, Ann (2018). "Early Twentieth Century Irish Catholic Devotional Imagery: The Honan Chapel Windows". In Griffith, Angela; Kennedy, Róisín; Helmers, Marguerite (eds.). Harry Clarke and Artistic Visions of the New Irish State. Irish Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-7885-5045-1.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  • Wilson, Ann (2013). "Arts and Crafts and Revivalism in Catholic Church Decoration: A Brief Duration". Éire-Ireland. Éire-Ireland. 48 (3/4).

Further reading

  • Gordon Bowe, Nicola (1988). "The works of Harry Clarke and the artists of An Túr Gloine (The Tower of Glass) 1903-1963". Gazetteer of Irish stained glass. Irish Academic Press.
  • Larmour, Paul (2002). "The Honan Chapel: a shrine to the Irish Arts and Crafts Movement". Irish Architectural & Decorative Studies. Irish Georgian Society.

External links