26 Broadway

From Deep web, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

26 Broadway
26 Broadway 004.JPG
General information
TypeOffice
Architectural styleNeoclassical
Location26 Broadway
New York, NY 10004
Construction started1884
1921 (expansion)
Completed1885 (original building)
1928 (expansion)
OwnerNewmark Knight Frank
Height
Roof520 ft (158 m)
Technical details
Floor count31
Lifts/elevators11
Design and construction
Architect
26 Broadway is located in New York City
26 Broadway
Location in New York City
Coordinates40°42′20″N 74°00′47″W / 40.70556°N 74.01306°W / 40.70556; -74.01306Coordinates: 40°42′20″N 74°00′47″W / 40.70556°N 74.01306°W / 40.70556; -74.01306
Architectural style(s)Neoclassical
DesignatedMay 16, 1995
Reference no.1930
References
26 Broadway at Emporis

26 Broadway, also known as the Standard Oil Building or Socony-Vacuum Building, is an office building located at Bowling Green in the Financial District of Manhattan, New York City. The 31-story, 520-foot-tall (160 m) structure was designed by Thomas Hastings of Carrère and Hastings in the Renaissance Revival style, in conjunction with Shreve, Lamb & Blake.

26 Broadway is located on a pentagonal site bounded by Broadway to the northwest, Bowling Green to the west, Beaver Street to the south, New Street to the east/southeast, and the axis of Morris Street to the north. It contains a tower topped by a stepped pyramid, as well as a curved facade along Broadway.

The original structure was built in 1884–1885 for Standard Oil on the former site of U.S. treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's house. The Standard Oil Building was expanded in 1895 and again after World War I, when Walter C. Teagle bought four neighboring buildings to create a continuous lot. The building was greatly expanded to its current size in a multi-phase construction project that took place between 1921 and 1928. 26 Broadway was sold to another owner in 1956 but remained a prominent structure on Bowling Green. In 1995, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission designated 26 Broadway as an official city landmark.

Description[edit]

26 Broadway is bounded by Broadway to the northwest and west (along Bowling Green), Beaver Street to the south, and New Street to the east/southeast. It occupies the physical lots of 10-30 Broadway, 1-11 Beaver Street, and 73-81 New Street.[1] Immediately to the south is 2 Broadway, while the Cunard Building (25 Broadway), 11 Broadway, and the Charging Bull sculpture are located directly to the west.[2] The New York City Subway's BMT Broadway Line (now the R and ​W trains) and IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4 and ​5 trains) cross each other under the western boundary of the building; the lines' respective Whitehall Street and Bowling Green stations are both located less than a block south.[3]

The building was designed by Thomas Hastings of Carrère and Hastings in the Renaissance Revival style, in conjunction with Shreve, Lamb & Blake.[1][2] Of the principal architects in the latter firm, Richmond Shreve oversaw the construction of the building's expansion and was tasked with solving logistical issues; however, not much is known about the tasks performed by William F. Lamb and Theodore Blake.[4] The structure is 520 feet (160 m) tall, with 31 stories.[5]

Form[edit]

The top of 26 Broadway's tower section contains a finial and kerosene cauldron

The building has a complex massing: its lower portion occupies the entire pentagonal lot, following the curving contour of Broadway at that point, while its tower is aligned with the grid to which Lower Manhattan's other skyscrapers conform.[2][4] A deep light court cuts through the center of the Beaver Street facade, which was the last section to be constructed due to the presence of a holdout lot.[4]

The original Standard Oil Building, a 15- or 16-story building initially faced in brick, still exists at the base of the modern skyscraper.[4] The interior floors of the annex portions were designed so that they were at the same level as the floors in the original building.[6] The newer floors are carried by trusses over the original structure, rather than resting on the older building's walls.[7] In total, the base of the building is 16 stories.[8]

The tower section of 26 Broadway contains an additional 13 stories above the northern edge of the expanded base. A colonnade is located outside the top three stories on each side.[8] The tower is topped by a ziggurat-style pyramid[8] that is inspired by the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.[2][4] The pyramid was added when the building was expanded in the 1920s, and its top finial is 480 feet (150 m) above ground level.[6] The pyramid contains a cauldron that initially was lit by kerosene, the material with which Standard Oil's founders, the Rockefeller family, made their first profits. The cauldron's light was extinguished after 1956.[9]

Foundation[edit]

The modern building was constructed in several phases around the preexisting buildings on the site. The buildings were occupied by numerous tenants, who were allowed to temporarily stay in place due to the dearth of office space in Lower Manhattan in the 1920s.[10][11][12] The structures included the Welles Building at 14-20 Broadway, at the modern building site's western boundary; the New York Produce Exchange at Broadway and Beaver Street, on the site's southwest corner; the Lisbon Building at Beaver and New Streets, at the site's southeast corner; and a five-story Childs Restaurants location in the middle of the block on Beaver Street, on the southern boundary.[a] The original Standard Oil structure was located on the northern boundary of the site.[12][13]

Further complicating work was the presence of quicksand some 15 to 18 feet (4.6 to 5.5 m) below ground, underneath which was a hardpan of clay, gravel, and boulders. The Welles Building and the original Standard Oil Building contained thick footings that went into the quicksand, though only a few of the footings reached the hardpan. Thus, a cofferdam wall was built underneath part of the expanded site, extending down to the bedrock at the deepest level.[11] A complex system of underpinning was then undertaken so that the existing buildings would not collapse while excavation and construction of the foundation was ongoing.[14]

Facade[edit]

Main arched entrance (center right), adjacent to Charging Bull (center left), as seen from across Broadway

The modern building's facade is primarily composed of buff-colored Indiana Limestone, covering the tower and much of the base. The limestone facade at the lower stories is rusticated.[8] The original building's facade was made of red brick and granite, making it appear as though the original section was separate from the expanded structure.[15] Part of this facade is visible from New Street, but the Broadway facade was totally replaced with limestone.[6][10][16] A small portion of the original building's southern facade is still visible but was given a limestone overlay.[8]

26 Broadway features numerous setbacks on its facade, as mandated by the 1916 Zoning Resolution. The lowest such setback is located at the 10th floor on the New and Beaver Streets sides. Further setbacks are located above the 16th floor, where the building's base transitions into the tower, as well as above the 18th and 22nd floors of the tower.[6][16]

The Broadway facade slopes slightly downward to the south: at the northern part of the building, the ground level is at the same elevation as the building's second floor. The main entrance is located near the middle of the curved Broadway facade; it consists of a recessed double-height arch, with elaborately carved spandrels at the top of the arch. Double-height arched windows are located on either side of the main entrance arch. There are also two secondary entrances at 24 and 28 Broadway, located respectively to the south and north of the main arch; these doorways are located within doorways topped by pediments and clocks. The former was historically an entrance to retail space, while the latter provides access to the original building.[8] On Beaver Street to the south, the ground level is at the same elevation as the first floor, and contains storefronts. The Beaver Street facade is divided into three sections. The center section only reaches to the third floor and contains a cornice above projecting vertical pilasters, while the taller outer sections contain double-height arched windows between smaller window openings.[15] On New Street, the facade is divided into two sections: the northern section is made of brick and granite, and the southern section is made of limestone.[15]

Features[edit]

Lobby passageway

The entrance contains an entrance hall 40 feet (12 m) high. According to Atlas Obscura, the entrance hall is designed similar to "a cathedral's apse" with chandeliers lined with marble and gold; engraved names of top Standard Oil officials on the doorways; and the initials "SO" on the elevator doors.[17]

The interior features 19 elevators; the elevators in the original building were removed when the expansion was built. The 23rd floor contained squash courts with adjoining locker and shower rooms.[6][16] The 21st floor, which housed Standard Oil successor Socony's board room, covered 2,000 square feet (190 m2) and contained a double-height ceiling with relief panels; a limestone fireplace; and oak wainscoting.[18]

The building contains a basement 10 feet (3.0 m) deep, as well as a sub-basement 37 feet (11 m) deep. All of 26 Broadway's mechanical equipment is located in the sub-basement.[19]

History[edit]

Context[edit]

The site of the Standard Oil Building was occupied by Dutch houses after the colony of New Amsterdam was founded in the 17th century.[20] In the late 18th century, 26 Broadway was the home address of Alexander Hamilton, his wife Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, and their family.[21] Hamilton occupied the house after resigning his position as United States Secretary of the Treasury.[22] According to a 1786 directory, rum was also sold from the address in the late 18th century.[23]

Starting in the early 19th century, when New York City became a nationally prominent commercial hub, many firms chose to build their headquarters in Lower Manhattan, renting the unused space to subsidiaries or other companies. Corporations sought addresses in the Financial District as status symbols. Furthermore, many companies built their original headquarters in the 19th century and replaced these with larger structures in the early 20th century.[10]

First structure[edit]

The brick facade of the original structure, next to the limestone facade of the expanded building
The brick facade of the original structure (right) can still be seen on New Street, next to the limestone facade of the expanded building (left)

Standard Oil Trust moved its headquarters to New York City from Cleveland, Ohio, in 1870.[10] By 1884, the company had acquired lots at 24-28 Broadway near Bowling Green, and had started erecting a headquarters building at the site.[24] The Standard Oil Building, opened in 1885, was designed by architect Francis H. Kimball as a 9- or 10-story, 86-foot-wide (26 m) building that extended between Broadway to the west and New Street to the east. It was designed by Ebenezer L. Roberts with a Renaissance Revival granite facade. In 1895, six stories were added and a 27-foot-wide (8.2 m) annex was erected on 26 Broadway's north side; the extension was designed by Kimball & Thompson and continued the original Renaissance Revival design.[10][25] A 1910 photograph showed that 26 Broadway was initially flanked by other buildings, and was 16 stories high.[26]

Initially, all of Standard Oil's 40 operations were controlled from 26 Broadway.[10] So important was the building's role, The New York Times said that "Twenty-six Broadway was once to oil what 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue [the White House] is to politics."[18] By 1890, Standard Oil controlled 88 percent of the refined oil flows in the United States. In an attempt to avoid public scrutiny, in 1899 Standard Oil was reorganized as the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, a holding company based at 26 Broadway.[27] This did not resolve the monopoly concerns: The New York Times in 1906 said that "every cent any of [Standard Oil's subsidiaries] made found its way to 26 Broadway".[28] When Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States was decided in May 1911, Standard Oil was required to be broken up into several smaller firms.[29] As a result of the decision, several subdivisions were forced to move, including Tenant Corn Refining Products Company[30] and U.S. Steel.[31] By December 1911, half of the company's divisions were still housed at 26 Broadway.[32] The building ultimately served as the headquarters of the Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony, later Mobil) once the split was completed.[2]

Expansion[edit]

After World War I, Walter C. Teagle decided to greatly expand the structure by buying the neighboring buildings on the block.[10] At the time, the area around Bowling Green was quickly developing into a shipping center within Lower Manhattan.[25] To the north of the original Standard Oil Building was the 17-story Hudson Building, followed by a 21-story office building at 36-42 Broadway. Socony was reported to have purchased the latter in February 1920, paying $6 million and beating out two other bidders for the property.[33] The next month, the company acquired or leased all four structures that stood between the existing building and Beaver Street to the south.[34] According to The New York Times, the brokers valued the $30 million transaction as "probably the largest real estate transaction ever closed in the city".[34] After the acquisitions were complete, Socony had a total frontage of 500 feet (150 m) facing Broadway,[10] not all of which were to be part of the headquarters' expansion.[6] This frontage was truncated soon after, as Socony sold the Arcade at 44-50 Broadway in March 1920.[35][b]

26 Broadway around 1930

In August 1920, Carrère and Hastings filed plans with the New York City Department of Buildings for enlarging 26 Broadway to 24 stories.[37] Thomas Hastings—the only living partner of Carrère and Hastings, who had helped design the Cunard Building across the street—was chosen as lead architect. Shreve, Lamb & Blake were named as the associated architects.[4] Further details of 26 Broadway's major expansion were publicly announced in March 1921. The building was to cost $5 million and rise 480 feet (150 m), covering a lot of 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2), with a total floor area of 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2), thus becoming one of Lower Manhattan's "largest structures".[6][16][25] The project included replacement of the old building's Broadway facade.[6]

Construction was complicated by the Childs Restaurants location's decision to hold out until its lease expired; the difficulty of evicting the four buildings' occupants; and a dearth of available office space in the neighborhood.[10] As a result, the expansion was to be undertaken in several phases,[10][11][25] and the plans were changed in 1921 to allow for a lighted courtyard around the location of the restaurant.[4][12] The existing buildings on the site were underpinned so that existing tenants could remain until construction started on these respective sections.[11][12] Work started in 1921 at the southeastern corner of the site, at Beaver and New Streets, on the site of the Lisbon Building. The section at the southwestern corner, the former Produce Exchange at Broadway and Beaver Street, began two years later.[10][11] The original building's brick facade on Broadway was replaced in 1924–1925, but the facade along New Street was kept in place. The last section of the site to be built was the lot occupied by Childs Restaurants, which was not developed until 1928, after the restaurant's lease had run out.[10]

Later years[edit]

26 Broadway was known as the "Rockefeller address" because the offices of John D. Rockefeller Jr. and John Sr. were located in the building. After the construction of Rockefeller Center, the offices of both Rockefellers moved to 30 Rockefeller Plaza in 1933.[38] The same year, Standard Oil of New Jersey (by that time, also known phonetically as Esso) announced its intention to move as well, in order to consolidate its operations at Rockefeller Center.[39] Ultimately, Esso moved some of its operations in 1933, but retained other offices at 26 Broadway until 1946, when these offices moved to 75 Rockefeller Plaza.[15] National Fuel Gas also moved to Rockefeller Center in 1936.[40]

Socony, which had merged in 1931 with Vacuum Oil to form Socony-Vacuum, retained its headquarters in 26 Broadway. The structure thus was renamed the Socony-Vacuum Building in 1950.[41] Socony-Vacuum moved to 150 East 42nd Street in 1954 and sold 26 Broadway two years later.[42] Afterward, the Koeppel family purchased the building.[18] Standard & Poor's leased spaces at 25 and 26 Broadway starting in the late 1970s.[43] Alfred J. Koeppel's Independence Partners purchased the building for $16 million in 1989.[44] In 1995, 26 Broadway and several other buildings on Bowling Green[c] were formally designated as New York City landmarks.[45]

S&P started leasing space at nearby 55 Water Street in 1997, vacating its former quarters at 25 and 26 Broadway.[43] Standard & Poor's moved out in late 1999, and the vacant space was completely filled by the following April.[46] The ownership of the building and the underlying plots remained separate until 2007, when the Chetrit Group bought the building and two of the three lots underneath for $225 million.[47] Chetrit bought the remaining leasehold for $34.93 million in 2010; the lease had been held by the estate of Elmer Ellsworth Smathers (died 1928), who had signed a 99-year lease in 1920.[47][48] As of 2019, 26 Broadway is owned by Broadway 26 Waterview, while Chetrit Group is landlord for many of the interior spaces, and Newmark Group is the landlord's broker.[49]

Tenants[edit]

Seen from Whitehall and Beaver Streets, to the southwest. 2 Broadway can be seen at right

Former[edit]

The lower floors of the building have been used by two museums. The Museum of American Finance (MOAF) was founded in the building in 1988, initially occupying 250 square feet (23 m2) of space on the ground floor.[50] The MOAF opened a gallery at the building's 24 Broadway entrance in 1992, which was moved to the 28 Broadway entrance in 1996,[51] and the entire museum finally relocated to 48 Wall Street in 2006.[52][53] Additionally, the Sports Museum of America was founded in the building in 2008.[54] The Sports Museum closed in 2009 due to low patronage, since 95% of New York City residents were unaware of its existence.[55]

Additionally, Dowling College Manhattan was located in the Standard Oil Building[56] until it closed in 2016.[57]

Current[edit]

As of 2020, tenants include Cornell University's College of Architecture, Art, and Planning,[49][58] Olo (Online Ordering),[49][59] SecondMarket, SpeechCycle, and JDRF.[49] The New York Film Academy, leased the entire 12th floor in 2014.[49][60] Other tenants include the coworking company Primary,[49][61] the law firm Schlam Stone & Dolan, and the design company Ustwo Studio.[49][48]

The largest tenant of 26 Broadway is the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE), and the building contains numerous schools and offices administered by the NYCDOE.[62] The Lower Manhattan Community School, a middle school, serves grades 6 through 8.[63] A second middle school, the New York City Charter School of the Arts, also serves grades 6-8[64] and moved into the building in 2018.[62] A third, the Urban Assembly School of Business for Young Women, is a high school serving grades 9-12.[65] In addition, the New York City School Construction Authority leases the fourth through sixth floors.[49] Starting in 2008, the PS 234 elementary school was supposed to have used 26 Broadway to alleviate classroom overcrowding at its main campus, but 26 Broadway was subsequently deemed "not appropriate for kindergartners" because the students would have to use elevators to reach the proposed classroom space.[66]

Critical reception[edit]

A writer for The New York Times praised the building plans in 1922, saying that the expanded building would be a "landmark in the city skyline".[12] As the building was completed, architectural critics praised the design of 26 Broadway as having more emphasis on its form instead of the articulation of windows and other details.[4][67] The architect C.H. Blackall, for instance, stated that the building's specialty was in its massing, with the windows and other details as "incidents".[4][68] The British architect Charles Herbert Reilly said that "the combination possible of stepped building and tower", as used in 26 Broadway, could contribute to a form "more interesting even than that of the Woolworth Building".[4][67]:540

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A diagram of the site is shown in Chambers 1922, p. 283.
  2. ^ The Arcade, built in 1915, was located on the site of the Tower Building—possibly the city's first skyscraper[36]—as well as two other structures.[35]
  3. ^ Namely the exterior and first floor interior of the Cunard Building; the Bowling Green Offices Building; and the International Mercantile Marine Company Building[45]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1995, p. 1.
  2. ^ a b c d e White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7.
  3. ^ "MTA Neighborhood Maps: Bowling Green (4)(5)". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2018. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Landmarks Preservation Commission 1995, p. 3.
  5. ^ "26 Broadway". Emporis. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h "'26 Broadway', Standard Oil Headquarters, Is To Be World's Largest Business Office". New-York Tribune. March 6, 1921. p. 38. Retrieved February 2, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  7. ^ Chambers 1922, p. 288.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Landmarks Preservation Commission 1995, p. 4.
  9. ^ Pollak, Michael (May 16, 2004). "F.y.i." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Landmarks Preservation Commission 1995, p. 2.
  11. ^ a b c d e Chambers 1922, pp. 282–283.
  12. ^ a b c d e "ROCKEFELLER'S TOWER; Standard Oil's Skyscraper to Be Landmark in City Sky Line--Patchwork Foundation". The New York Times. January 15, 1922. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  13. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1995, pp. 5–6.
  14. ^ Chambers 1922, pp. 284–285.
  15. ^ a b c d Landmarks Preservation Commission 1995, p. 5.
  16. ^ a b c d "New Standard Oil Home Will Dominate View From Bay". New York Herald. March 6, 1921. p. 69. Retrieved February 2, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  17. ^ "A Very Short History of the Standard Oil Building in Manhattan". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  18. ^ a b c Dunlap, David W. (December 22, 1991). "Commercial Property: Unusual Spaces; An Oak Board Room, Anyone?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  19. ^ Chambers 1922, pp. 285–286.
  20. ^ Phelps Stokes, I.N. (1916). The iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498–1909. 2. pp. 220–222. Retrieved January 28, 2020 – via Internet Archive.
  21. ^ From Alexander Hamilton to Philip Schuyler, 22 March 1801. Founders Online. retrieved December 1, 2016.
  22. ^ Chernow, R. (2005). Alexander Hamilton (in Swedish). Penguin Publishing Group. p. 557. ISBN 978-1-101-20085-8. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  23. ^ "SOLD RUM AT 26 BROADWAY.; That Was In 1786 -- Old Directory Found by Los Angeles Man". The New York Times. October 9, 1910. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  24. ^ "Standard Oil Company Building". The New York Times. April 3, 1884. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  25. ^ a b c d "STANDARD OIL COMPANY PREPARING TO ERECT TWENTY-SEVEN STORY STRUCTURE ON BRAODWAY; Will Be One of the Largest Structures in Lower Manhattan, Covering Plot on Beaver Street Front South of Corporation's Present Home and Opposite New Cunard Building--Estimated Cost About $5,000,000". The New York Times. March 6, 1921. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  26. ^ De Leeuw, Rudolph M. (1910). Both sides of Broadway, from Bowling Green to Central Park, New York City. Columbia University Libraries. De Leeuw Riehl publishing company. p. 42. OCLC 7536624.
  27. ^ Yergin, Daniel (1991). The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 96–98. ISBN 0-671-50248-4.
  28. ^ "STANDARD OIL SECRETS WRUNG FROM WITNESSES; The Trust Agreements Shown by Attorney General Hadley. TERRITORY DIVIDED UP And All Profits Went to 26 Broadway -- H.H. Rogers and William Rockefeller May Testify. STANDARD OIL SECRETS WRUNG FROM WITNESSES". The New York Times. December 19, 1906. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  29. ^ Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, 221 U.S. 1 (1911)
  30. ^ "LEAVING 26 BROADWAY.; Corn Products Company Leases Two Whole Floors in Battery Place". The New York Times. November 29, 1911. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  31. ^ "SEND OIL TRUST MEN BACK TO THE WILDS; No Shelter at 26 Broadway for Employes of the Divorced Subsidiaries". The New York Times. November 24, 1911. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  32. ^ "Half of Standard Oil Business Still Managed at 26 Broadway". Wall Street Journal. December 2, 1911. p. 5. Retrieved January 31, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  33. ^ "$6,000,000 Sale on Lower Broadway; Twenty-one-Story Structure Adjoining Standard Oil Property Sold by Realty Company". The New York Times. February 22, 1920. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  34. ^ a b "STANDARD OIL GETS MORE OF BROADWAY; New York Corporation Acquires All Frontage Between Its Building and Beaver Street. $30,000,000 REALTY DEAL Welles and Produce Exchange Buildings and Two Others in Beaver Street Included. PLANS 20-STORY STRUCTURE Needed for Expanded Business of Oil Companies and Rockefeller Foundation". The New York Times. March 21, 1920. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  35. ^ a b "STANDARD OIL SELLS ARCADE AT $2,500,000; Norman S. Riensenfeld Closes Contracts for 4-Story Building at 44 to 50 Broadway. FOR INVESTMENT, HE SAYS Will Add Four Floors--PropertyOccupies Site of First SteelSkyscraper". The New York Times. March 25, 1920. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  36. ^ Gray, Christopher (May 5, 1996). "Streetscapes/The Tower Building;The Idea That Led to New York's First Skyscraper". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  37. ^ "A PRELIMINARY PLAN.; Data Recorded for Big Standard Oil Company Project". The New York Times. August 27, 1920. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  38. ^ "Rockefellers Will Quit Historic Address at 26 Broadway, Move to 5th Av. Center". The New York Times. May 15, 1933. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  39. ^ "STANDARD OIL CO. TO MOVE UPTOWN; Will Transfer Headquarters From 26 Broadway to the RCA Building. LEASES THREE FLOORS Also Takes Options on Several More -- Rockefeller Interests Being Concentrated There". The New York Times. June 27, 1933. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  40. ^ "FUEL GAS COMPANY TO MOVE UPTOWN; National to Quit 26 Broadway After 34 Years, Going to Rockefeller Center. BROKERS RENT QUARTERS Several Take Space at 30 Broad Street -- Other Business Leases Announced". The New York Times. June 12, 1936. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  41. ^ "OLD BUILDING RENAMED; 26 Broadway to Be Known as Socony-Vacuum Building". The New York Times. October 4, 1950. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  42. ^ "26 Broadway Building Sold by Socony Mobil". The New York Times. February 4, 1956. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  43. ^ a b Oser, Alan S. (August 3, 1997). "Downtown Is Looking Up". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  44. ^ Gonzalez, Juan (January 12, 1996). "Landlords, city should come clean". New York Daily News. p. 16. Retrieved February 2, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  45. ^ a b Dunlap, David W. (October 15, 1995). "Bringing Downtown Back Up". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  46. ^ Reed, Danielle (April 6, 2000). "Sandra Bullock's speedy sale". New York Daily News. p. 36. Retrieved February 2, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  47. ^ a b Pincus, Adam (January 6, 2010). "Chetrit pays $35M to complete purchase of old Standard Oil Building land". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  48. ^ a b "Cantor Commercial Lends $270Mln Against Manhattan's 26 Broadway". Commercial Real Estate Direct. January 12, 2015. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h "26 Broadway – TRD Research". The Real Deal. March 13, 2019. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  50. ^ "From wampum to Bloomberg terminals". www.amny.com. January 22, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  51. ^ "History". Museum of American Finance. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  52. ^ "Museum of American Finance Moving to Wall Street" (PDF). November 11, 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 23, 2006. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
  53. ^ Museum of American Finance (2007). Financial History. American Numismatic Society.
  54. ^ Sandomir, Richard (May 7, 2008). "An Afternoon at the (New Sports) Museum". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  55. ^ Sandomir, Richard (February 20, 2009). "Financial Problems Close Sports Museum". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  56. ^ "Dowling College Manhattan". Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  57. ^ Ocasio, Victor (November 30, 2016). "Dowling files for Chapter 11, will sell campuses". Newsday. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  58. ^ Bird’s-eye view of NYC for Architecture, Art and Planning Cornell University Press Office; By Daniel Aloi April 9, 2015
  59. ^ "OLO". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  60. ^ Delaporte, Gus (June 18, 2014). "New York Film Academy Leads Leasing at 26 Broadway". Commercial Observer. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  61. ^ "Co-working firm Primary adds floor at 26 Broadway". Real Estate Weekly. January 9, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  62. ^ a b Spivack, Caroline (August 7, 2018). "Parents Fear New Charter School Is A 'Disaster Waiting To Happen'". Tribeca-FiDi, NY Patch. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  63. ^ "Lower Manhattan Community Middle School". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  64. ^ "New York City Charter School of the Arts". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  65. ^ "Urban Assembly School of Business for Young Women, the". New York City Department of Education. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  66. ^ Beyer, Gregory (October 3, 2008). "For Downtown Primary Schools, Ever Less Wiggle Room". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  67. ^ a b Stern, Robert (1987). New York 1930 : architecture and urbanism between the two world wars. New York: Rizzoli. pp. 538–540. ISBN 978-0-8478-3096-1.
  68. ^ Blackall, C.H. (January 5, 1928). "American Architecture Since the War". American Architect. 113: 7–11.

Sources[edit]