Analog-to-digital timeline

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This page serves as a timeline to show when analog devices were first made with digital circuits and systems.


  1. ^ Maurice d'Ocagne p.245 (1893)
  2. ^ Jean Marguin, p. 48 (1994); Quoting René Taton (1963)
  3. ^ C. G. Chase, page 204 (1980)
  4. ^ Lott, Melissa C. "The Engineer Who Foreshadowed the Smart Grid--in 1921". Plugged In. Scientific American Blog Network. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Digital Audio". Introduction to Computer Music. Archived from the original on 2016-11-28.


  • Marguin, Jean (1994). Histoire des instruments et machines à calculer, trois siècles de mécanique pensante 1642-1942 (in French). Hermann. ISBN 978-2-7056-6166-3.
  • Taton, René (1963). Le calcul mécanique. Que sais-je ? n° 367 (in French). Presses universitaires de France. pp. 20–28.
  • d'Ocagne, Maurice (1893). Annales du Conservatoire national des arts et métier, 2e série, tome 5, Le calcul simplifié (in French). Paris: Gauthiers-Villars et files, Imprimeurs-Libraires.
  • Chase, George C (July 1980). History of Mechanical Computing Machinery. Volume 2, Number 3. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.