Anti-Filipino sentiment

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Anti-Filipino sentiment refers to the general dislike or hate towards the Philippines, Filipinos or Filipino culture.

Incidents by country[edit]

United States[edit]

History[edit]

A newspaper clipping from the Boston Sunday Globe depicting a Filipino blackface before and after the expansion of the United States to the Philippines. The clipping portrays the transformation of the Filipino from being "barbaric" to a "civilized man".

It was the American colonization of the Philippines that instigated the immigration of many Filipinos into America, either as pensionados, who came to further pursue their studies, or as laborers, who worked for Hawaii plantations, California farms, and the Alaska fishing industry. The 1924 Immigration Act stipulated that Filipinos were neither U.S. citizens nor foreigners but rather were colonized people. Technically they were American nationals.[1]

Ethnic discrimination towards Filipinos in America was evident during the American colonial period in the Philippines. Filipinos were often labelled as half-civilized or half-savage, worthless, uneducated and unscrupulous.[citation needed] Filipinos were perceived to be taking the jobs of white Americans. They were accused of attracting white women which led to the passing of an anti-miscegenation law.[2] Crime and violence were likely to be associated with Filipinos and they were shunned for their substandard living conditions where, in one instance, there were as many as twenty people sleeping in one room.[citation needed] These were merely racial prejudices. Filipino immigrants in America were affected by various socio-economic factors. The majority of Filipino immigrants of that era were men. The gender ratio of Filipino males to females in California then was approximately 14 to 1. Filipino workers were forced to live in poor conditions since they were poorly paid. [3]

The first documented incident occurred on New Year's Eve 1926, in Stockton, when Filipinos were stabbed and beaten.[2][4] These anti-Filipino attacks increased with the Great Depression.[5] Thus the Stockton 1926 attack was not the last: in November 1927 Filipinos were attacked in Yakima Valley, Washington;[6] in September 1928, Filipinos were attacked in Wenatchee Valley, Washington;[7] in October 1929, Filipinos were attacked in Exeter, California;[4] and in January 1930, Filipinos were attacked in Watsonville, California during the Watsonville Riots leading to the death of Fermin Tobera.[4][8] In Stockton's Little Manila, the Filipino Federation of America building was bombed.[9]

World War II was a significant turning point for American views towards Filipinos. During the early period of the war, Filipinos were prohibited to join the army.[10] However, in 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt allowed Filipinos to serve in the armed forces. Many Filipinos fought with Americans in Asia and Europe while some opted to be civilians involved in mobilization efforts during the war. Filipinos earned acceptance and admiration by the end of the war. The United States recognized and affirmed the Filipinos' right to citizenship with the amended Nationality Act of 1940. Through the amendment, non-citizens who joined the military were given opportunity to attain citizenship. About ten thousand Filipinos became American citizens through the amendment.[11]

China[edit]

Hong Kong[edit]

Between 1970–80s, Hong Kong saw the rise of Filipino population. Many of these Filipinos are working as domestic helpers.[12] The increase number of Filipino population there has created clash between Hong Kong residents and Filipino workers. The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong launched an advocacy that Filipinos were causing a significant rise of local unemployment in Hong Kong and costing billions in welfare treatment.[13]

Anti-Filipino sentiment in Hong Kong rose after the 2010 hostage crisis, in which a bus full of mostly Hong Kong tourists was fatally besieged by a disgruntled Filipino police officer,[12] and where subsequent investigations found Filipino officials' handling of the hostage crisis to be directly responsible for the hostages' deaths.[13][14][15] Tensions eased after Cabinet Secretary Rene Almendras and Joseph Estrada secretly went to Hong Kong to talk to officials and the victim's families.[16]

Indonesia[edit]

In 2016, anti-Filipino sentiment exists within the Confederation of Indonesian Worker's Unions (KPSI) organization after the recent kidnappings of Indonesian citizens by Sulu-based terrorist group, Abu Sayyaf. A protest was held by a group of Indonesian protesters of KPSI when they gathered in front of the Philippine Embassy in Indonesia, holding banners that read "Go to hell Philippines and Abu Sayyaf" and "Destroy the Philippines and Abu Sayyaf" to demanding more action from the Philippine government to fighting terrorism in their country which has since affected neighbouring countries.[17][18]

Malaysia[edit]

Sabah[edit]

The anti-Filipino sentiment is most notable in the state of Sabah in Malaysia due to a large presence of Filipino Moro illegal immigrants causing simmering resentment in the state.[19] The Sabahan locals refer to the illegal immigrants from the southern Philippines as "Pilak" which means (Filipino illegal immigrants) pejoratively.[20] The cause of this anti sentiment is due to the Muslims Filipino illegals immigrants who arrived in the 1970s from the Southern Philippines insurgency[21] bringing along their social problems, culture of crime, and poverty conditions as well as taking away jobs, business opportunities and allegedly stealing Sabahan native land (NCR) in the state.[19] This hatred was further strengthened when many of these illegal immigrants were involved in crime mostly robbery, murder and rape. Locals became the main victims which has affected the security of the state as evidenced by the recent 1985 ambush, 2000 kidnappings and 2013 standoff.[22][23][24][25][26] Large amounts had been spent for these Filipino illegal immigrants life maintenance and the amount remains unpaid until today despite attempts to recover the monies. Sabah Health Department said that infectious disease among the illegal immigrants was on the rise resulting to more expenditures, as well as provisions for more funds to accommodate the logistics such as medical officers and others.[27]

Singapore[edit]

The estimated number of Filipinos working in Singapore tripled in the past decade to about 167,000 as of 2013, according to Philippines census data. Amid increasing general resentment towards foreigners, a backlash towards Filipinos has taken place in Singapore. In 2014, a plan to hold a Philippine Independence Day celebration on Singapore's main shopping street Orchard Road was cancelled following online complaints by some Singaporeans who said the space was special to locals. One blogger called the move "insensitive", saying: "Celebrating your Independence Day openly in the public (especially [at a] iconic/tourist location like Orchard Road) is provocative".[28][29]

Anti-Filipino sentiment has continued to swirl online, culminating in a blog titled "Blood Stained Singapore" suggesting ways to abuse Filipinos, calling them "an infestation". The suggestions, which included pushing Filipinos out of trains and threats to spray insecticide on them eventually caused the blog to be taken down by Google for infringing content rules.[30][31]

Taiwan[edit]

Anti-Filipino sentiment in Taiwan was noticeable in 2013 as a result of the Philippine Coast Guard killing a Taiwanese fisherman.[32] Subsequently, there was widespread discrimination towards Filipino workers with Taiwanese businesses taking off any Filipino related products from their shelves and some shops refusing to welcome Filipino customers.[32][33] Sanctions placed by the Taiwanese government were removed after an official apology from the Philippine side was made.[34]

United Kingdom[edit]

Following a poisoning incident in a United Kingdom hospital in 2011, hundreds of Filipino nurses complained of a rise in racist attacks and discrimination towards them. This was especially true after a report by British tabloid, the Daily Mail with a headline of “NHS still hiring Filipino nurses” was published shortly after a Filipino nurse, Victorino Chua was found guilty of murdering two patients and poisoning 19 more.[35][36][37]

Derogatory terms[edit]

There are a variety of derogatory terms referring to the Philippines and Filipinos. Many of these terms are viewed as racist. However, these terms do not necessarily refer to Filipinos as a whole; they can also refer to specific policies, or specific time periods in history.

Chinese[edit]

  • Huan-a (Chinese: 番仔; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: hoan-á) – a pejorative term in the Hokkien or Minnan languages literally meaning "foreigner or non-Chinese". Used by ethnic Chinese from Taiwan and other parts of South East Asia to refer generally to non-Chinese Southeast Asians and Taiwanese Aborigines.[38] In the Philippines, this term is used by Chinese Filipinos to refer to those of Filipino descent.[39][better source needed] It is considered by some to hold the same connotations as the word gaijin in Japanese.[citation needed]

English[edit]

  • Gugus (also spelt Goo-goos) – a racial term used to refer to Filipino guerillas during the Philippine–American War. The term came from gugo, the Tagalog name for Entada phaseoloides or the St. Thomas bean, the bark of which was used by Filipinas to shampoo their hair. The term was a predecessor to the term gook, a racial term used to refer to all Asians.[40]
  • Flip – used to refer to American-born Filipinos. The term has vague origins with many hypotheses regarding its origin. It is suggested that the term originates from the World War II era. The term was allegedly an acronym for "fucking little island people" causing some Filipinos to avoid referring to themselves by this term. However, the term is also being reclaimed by some by changing the alleged originally meaning of the word to "fine looking island people". Some are convinced that the term is just a short version of the term "Filipino".[41]

Malay[edit]

  • Pilak – a term in Sabah Malay used pejoratively by the Sabahans to refer to illegal immigrants from the Philippines.[20]

Spanish[edit]

  • Indio – literally, "Indian". The term was used to refer to native Filipinos during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, and developed negative connotations due to the mistreatment of people with the label. "Filipino" was meanwhile originally reserved to Spanish persons living in the archipelago.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Filipino Migration to the U.S.: Introduction". Office of Multicultural Student Services, University of Hawai'i. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  2. ^ a b Erika Lee (16 August 2016). The Making of Asian America: A History. Simon and Schuster. pp. 184–186. ISBN 978-1-4767-3941-0.
  3. ^ "Racial Discrimination". Office of Multicultural Student Services, University of Hawai'i. Archived from the original on 8 August 2001. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  4. ^ a b c Dawn Bohulano Mabalon (29 May 2013). Little Manila Is in the Heart: The Making of the Filipina/o American Community in Stockton, California. Duke University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8223-9574-4.
    Bill Ong Hing (2004). Defining America: Through Immigration Policy. Temple University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-59213-233-1.
  5. ^ Kevin Starr (1997). Endangered Dreams: The Great Depression in California. Oxford University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-19-511802-5.
  6. ^ Rick Baldoz (28 February 2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898-1946. NYU Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-8147-0921-4.
    Ross, Steve (4 August 2017). "The Yakima Terror". Slate. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
    Meyers, Donald W. (18 September 2017). "It Happened Here: Mobs attack Filipinos in Lower Valley". Yakima Herald. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
    "IV. Timeline: Asian Americans in Washington State History". Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  7. ^ Huping Ling; Allan W. Austin (17 March 2015). Asian American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 934. ISBN 978-1-317-47644-3.
    Jonathan H. X. Lee (16 January 2015). History of Asian Americans: Exploring Diverse Roots: Exploring Diverse Roots. ABC-CLIO. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-313-38459-2.
    A. F. Hinriehs (1945). Labor Unionism in American Agriculture (Report). United States Department of Labor. p. 211. Retrieved 24 April 2018 – via Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  8. ^ Rachel Lee (5 June 2014). The Routledge Companion to Asian American and Pacific Islander Literature. Routledge. p. 478. ISBN 978-1-317-69841-8.
  9. ^ Perez, Frank Ramos; Perez, Leatrice Bantillo (1994). "The Long Struggle for Acceptance: Filipinos in San Joaquin County" (PDF). The San Joaquin Historian. The San Joaquin County Historical Society. 8 (4): 3–18. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
    Dawn B. Mabalon, Ph.D.; Rico Reyes; Filipino American National Historical So (2008). Filipinos in Stockton. Arcadia Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7385-5624-6.
  10. ^ Frank, Sarah (2005). Filipinos in America. Lerner Publications. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8225-4873-7. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  11. ^ "Impact of World War II on Filipino Migrant Workers". Office of Multicultural Student Services, University of Hawai'i. Archived from the original on 12 December 2001. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  12. ^ a b Joohee Kim (21 October 2011). "Hong Kong Creates Opportunity for Filipino Migrant Workers". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs. Archived from the original on 15 October 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  13. ^ a b "Hong Kong and Anti-Filipino Sentiment". Asia Sentinel. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  14. ^ "Filipinos facing harm in HK may run to gov't commission". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 27 August 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  15. ^ "RP assured of safety of Filipinos in Hong Kong". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  16. ^ "How Philippines, Hong Kong agreed on closure". ABS-CBN News. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  17. ^ "Protest at Philippine Embassy in Jakarta as Hostage Crisis Worsens". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  18. ^ Natashya Gutierrez (14 July 2016). "'Go to hell Philippines': Indonesian workers ask Duterte to act on Abu Sayyaf kidnappings". Rappler. Archived from the original on 26 July 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  19. ^ a b "Illegal immigrants causing simmering resentment in Sabah". The Malaysian Times. 22 August 2012. Archived from the original on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  20. ^ a b "Kamus Sabah (Sabah Dictionary)" (in Malay). Sabah Dictionary. Archived from the original on 10 October 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  21. ^ Riwanto Tirtosudarmo (2007). Mencari Indonesia: demografi-politik pasca-Soeharto (in Indonesian). Yayasan Obor Indonesia. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-979-799-083-1.
  22. ^ Patrick Pillai (1992). People on the Move: Ban Overview of Recent Immigration and Emigration in Malaysia. Institute of Strategic and International Studies, Malaysia. ISBN 978-967-947-158-8.
  23. ^ Asiaweek. Asiaweek Limited. April 1994.
  24. ^ Azizah Kassim; Universiti Malaysia Sabah (2005). Proceedings of seminar on state responses to the presence and employment of foreign workers in Sabah. Universiti Malaysia Sabah. ISBN 978-983-2369-35-6.
  25. ^ Charlie Saceda (6 March 2013). "Pinoys in Sabah fear retaliation". Rappler. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  26. ^ Kanul Gindol (31 May 2014). "'Localised' illegal immigrants helping 'foreign' relatives in Sabah". The Ant Daily. Archived from the original on 3 June 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  27. ^ "RCI: Large amount spent on food, education, healthcare of illegal immigrants". New Straits Times. 3 December 2014. Archived from the original on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  28. ^ Jake Maxwell Watts (22 April 2014). "Filipino Group Awakens Anti-Foreign Anger in Singapore". The World Street Journal. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  29. ^ "Celebration by Filipinos sparks wave of anti-immigrant abuse in Singapore". Agence France-Presse. South China Morning Post. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  30. ^ Tessa Wong (29 December 2014). "Unease in Singapore over Filipino workers". BBC News. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  31. ^ "Filipinos in Singapore drop IDay celebration plans after abuse". Agence France-Presse. Yahoo! News. 26 May 2014. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  32. ^ a b "Taichung City Government Labor Affairs Bureau Takes the Initiative in Caring for Filipino Workers, Calling on Residents of Taichung to Be Rational in Their Treatment of the City's Filipino Labor Force". Research, Development and Evaluation Commission of Taichung City Government. 29 May 2013. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016. In recent days there has been a surge in anti-Filipino sentiment among Taiwanese citizens. This is following the Filipino government's handling of an event which saw a government vessel from that country fire upon, and kill, fishermen aboard the Guang Da Xing No. 28 fishing boat (廣大興28號) – leading to a succession of attacks on Filipino workers in counties and governments around Taiwan.
  33. ^ "Anti-Philippines sentiment spreads in Taiwan". CCTV News. 17 May 2013. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  34. ^ "Taiwan lifts Philippines sanctions after shooting apology". BBC News. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  35. ^ Stephen Wright (19 May 2015). "NHS STILL hiring Filipino nurses despite Victorino Chua scandal: Recruiters fly out in desperate bid to fill hospital vacancies". Daily Mail. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  36. ^ Jessica Elgot (20 May 2015). "Daily Mail criticised for 'stereotyping' Filipino nurses after Chua murder case". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  37. ^ Tomáš Tengely-Evans (26 May 2015). "Exclusive - Filipino NHS nurses tell of shocking rise in racist attacks". Socialist Worker. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  38. ^ TVBS NEWS (2016-11-18), 【TVBS】立委邱議瑩罵「番仔」 三鞠躬道歉, retrieved 2019-06-15
  39. ^ "Chinese in the Philippines". China History Forum, Chinese History Forum. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  40. ^ Francis Whitebird. "Derogatory terms used in history". Lakota Country Times. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  41. ^ "Filipino American". Emory University Postcolonial Studies. Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015. Since 1996, Deepika Bahri has created and maintained content for Postcolonial Studies @ Emory with her students. In 2011, she won a Mellon grant from Emory's Digital Scholarship Commons (DiSC) to redesign the site in collaboration with the DiSC staff.
  42. ^ "Colonial Name, Colonial Mentality and Ethnocentrism (Part One)". CPCA Brisbane. Retrieved 1 February 2015.