Art Deco architecture of New York City
Art Deco architecture flourished in New York City during the 1920s and 1930s before largely disappearing after World War II. The style is found in government edifices, commercial projects, and residential buildings in all five boroughs. The architecture of the period was influenced not just by decorative arts influences from across the world, but also local zoning regulations.
Their proliferation first fueled by the Roaring Twenties and speculation, Art Deco buildings range in size and sophistication from towering skyscrapers and office buildings to modest middle-class housing and municipal buildings. First defined by the colorful, lavishly-decorated skyscrapers of Manhattan, the Great Depression and changing tastes pushed Art Deco to more subdued applications in the 1930s. The lull in construction during World War II and rise of the International Style led to the end of new Art Deco in the city.
After falling out of favor and suffering from neglect during the city's downturn in the latter half of the 20th century, New York's Art Deco has been reappraised; among its most treasured and recognizable buildings are the Art Deco Empire State Building and Chrysler Building, and Art Deco skyscrapers formed the core of the city's skyline. Today, many of New York's finest Art Deco examples are protected by historic preservation laws, while others have been lost to development or neglect.
American Art Deco has its origins in European arts, especially the style moderne popularized at the 1925 International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts from which Art Deco draws its name (Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes). While the United States would not officially participate, Americans visited the exposition,:47 including New York architect Irwin Chanin,:55 and the government sent a delegation to the expo. Their resulting report helped spread the style to America.:6 Other influences included German expressionism, the Austrian Secession, art nouveau, cubism, and the ornament of African and Central and South American cultures.:8–9 In America, Art Deco architecture would take on different forms in different regions of the country, influenced by local culture, laws, and tastes.:42
Art Deco came into style just as New York itself was being rapidly transformed. An exploding population, flush economic times, cheap and available credit, and lax zoning combined to encourage a building boom. The real estate market was so explosive that old buildings were regularly being torn down for new construction after standing for only a few years.:42 To obtain greater returns, builders tore down twice as many buildings as went up, with the new buildings occupying two or more old lots. The result was that the amount of office space in New York City increased by 92% in the back half of the 1920s.:49–50
In New York City specifically, zoning regulations had major impacts on the design of its buildings. The development of the elevator and steel-framed buildings enabled the construction of buildings far taller than ever before—the skyscraper. The rise of ever-larger skyscrapers such as the 40-story Equitable Building helped spur the passage of the United States' first citywide zoning code, the 1916 Zoning Resolution. The regulations, intended to prevent tall buildings from choking out light and air at street level, required tall buildings to "set back" from street level depending on the width of the street and the zoned area. Once a building rose up and set back to cover just 25% of the lot, clients and architects were limited not by city codes but by money and engineering as to the height of their project.:48 The impact of the new regulations was not felt until later in the decade, since building slowed during World War I.
Early buildings built to conform to the new setback codes did so unimaginatively—the Heckscher Building in Midtown (completed 1921) set back evenly like a stack of boxes as it rose—but more novel interpretations of the law would follow. Influential on the resulting skyscrapers was Finn Eliel Saarinen's second-place entry for Chicago's Tribune Tower, considered a liberating alternative for a skyscraper style unbeholden to either Gothic or Classical architecture.:7–8 Also influential were architect and illustrator Hugh Ferriss' series of speculative architectural illustrations exploring how to make buildings that met the zoning requirements. Ferriss' illustrations envisioned buildings not as boxes but sculptural forms. Architect Talbot Hamlin described Ferriss' work as "a magic wand to set the American city architecture free from its nightmare. [...] No longer was the high building apparently built by the mile and cut off to order, but it was composed break upon break, buttress on buttress. The possibilities of poetry entered in.":48–49
Precursors to the Art Deco skyscrapers that would soon go up across the city were buildings such as Raymond Hood's American Radiator Building, which was neo-Gothic in general style but featured abstract ornament that would characterize the emerging style. Another early transitional building was the Madison Belmont Building at 181 Madison Avenue (1924–1925), which featured traditional ornamentation and organization on upper floors, combined with Art Deco motifs on the lower floors. The ironwork was provided by Edgar Brandt, who contributed the iron entrance gates to the 1925 Paris Exhibition.:1,5–6
Art Deco in the city
The buildings that would become described as Art Deco shared several elements. The setback laws resulted in three-dimensional, sculptural buildings, with long, uninterrupted piers rising between columns of windows and decorated spandrels. These choices were made to emphasize the height of the buildings as an overriding consideration,:37 a choice mimicked even on much shorter buildings built across town. New York's architects were at the forefront of using new materials, including synthetics like Bakelite and Formica plastics, as well as Nirosta, a corrosion-resistant steel alloy that made exterior metal on skyscrapers more feasible.:68 Aluminum's declining price and lighter weight than steel led to it being a common choice for interior and exterior usage. Other common materials were brick and multicolored terra cotta.
Architectural historian Rosemarie Haag Bletter described the most pronounced element of Art Deco as "its use of sumptuous ornament". The most dynamic elements were reserved for entrances and at the tops of buildings, with multiple materials combined to form dazzling colors or rich texture. Sometimes the buildings were shaded—using darker-colored materials at the base, and then gradually lightening towards the top—to increase the building's visibility.:37 Art Deco buildings in the city were also richly appointed inside and out with reliefs, mosaics, murals, and other art. Allegorical depictions—such as beehives of industry on the French Building, personifications of virtues at Rockefeller Center, or figures portraying industry and the arts at the International Magazine Building—were common decorative elements.:47, 72 The entries and lobbies of these skyscrapers often drew direct influence from the painted sets and stages of theaters, with framing like hanging curtains.:10
Architect Ely Jacques Kahn commented in 1926 on the emerging style that his brethren were creating with their buildings:
[It] is so characteristic of New York that it would be more logical, by far, to call it a New York Style. [...] Decoration becomes a far more precious thing than a collection of dead leaves, swags, bull's heads and cartouches. It becomes a means of enriching the surface with a play of light and shade, voices and solids. [Today's ornamental forms] respond to the bulk and simplicity of the skyscraper itself.
Deco in New York became intrinsically linked with commercial architecture. Its focus on rich ornamentation and sensory appeal appealed to commercial patrons who wanted an "acceptable" modern style. These developers in turn gave architects a permissive mandate to create in the style, as long as the end result was not too shocking.:40–43 The buildings rose to the height where the cost of added space equalized with the commercial value of that space.:13 The emerging style was contemporaneously called the "vertical style", "skyscraper style", or simply "modern", with the characteristic look of setback buildings leading to them being called "wedding cake" buildings.:79:164
The demand for modern buildings was such that even architectural firms known for more restrained and classical designs adopted the new style. Cross & Cross's main practice was for discreet townhomes and banks, but in the late 1920s they produced modern skyscrapers such as the RCA Victor Building. The 50-story skyscraper turned Gothic tracery into stylized lightning bolts. Another conservative firm that moved to modernistic designs was Walker & Gillette, whose best-known Art Deco building in New York is the Fuller Building. Buildings already being constructed were sometimes appended with Art Deco flourishes; the Paramount Building (1926) had an Art Deco clock tower appended to a Beaux-Arts base.:appx 22B These buildings were constructed either as headquarters for established and emerging companies, or else speculative projects where money would be drawn from renting out the space in the new building. The design of speculative buildings was chiefly driven by maximizing rentable space, whereas corporate buildings served as advertisements for the corporations themselves—in some cases, sacrificing revenue for what architect Timothy L. Pflueger termed "special architectural appeal". Even with these corporate buildings, however, the owners would often lend space to smaller businesses and treat them as real estate investments.:162–163 The very buildings often spoke to the business conducted there. The RCA Building's wave motifs represent the power of radio, while the Chrysler Building would have ornamental touches of radiators and hubcaps for the automobile company. With the McGraw-Hill Building,:61 Wyndham New Yorker Hotel, and Daily News Building, the buildings feature their names in prominent signage or embedded into the very facade. Because the true shape of the building was often hard to grasp for a street-level observer, many of the skyscrapers featured miniature versions of the building itself as part of their ground-level decoration.:37
In the Financial District and downtown Manhattan, the skyline was quickly transformed by the proliferation of Art Deco high-rises. Arguably the first Art Deco skyscraper was the Barclay-Vesey Building at 140 West Street, built from 1923 to 1927 and conceived by Ralph Thomas Walker. Its exterior was decorated with motifs derived from Aztec designs, and the lobby featured a vaulting ceiling with frescoes detailing the history of communication.:111 Other notable Art Deco skyscrapers in downtown include the Irving Trust Company Building (1929–1931), designed with a "curtain" exterior and Hildreth Meiere-produced mosaics in the interior;:99–102 120 Wall Street (1929–1930), with classic wedding-cake form and a red granite and limestone base;:71 and the City Bank-Farmers Trust Building, featuring abstract heads along the facade looking down at street level, and bronzed doors featuring transportation methods.:106–109 The final skyscraper built before World War II in the Financial District was 70 Pine Street, built 1932.:102 It featured unique double-deck elevators servicing two lobby floors, designed to maximize the profitable space of the small plot.
In comparison to downtown, which already had skyscrapers dating to the previous century and fewer available plots, Midtown Manhattan was only just beginning to develop its skyline as Art Deco became popular, with its business district booming after the construction of Grand Central Terminal and the undergrounding of previously exposed train tracks opening up new plots for development.
New York's architects were caught in a furious race for the title of tallest building in the world, and several Art Deco buildings vied for the title. By the end of 1930 there were more than 11 building plans on file of more than 60 floors; among them were the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building, both of which increased in height from their 1928 and 1929 plans, respectively. In competition with 40 Wall Street for the title of tallest building, Van Alen secretly constructed the Chrysler Building's 185 foot (56 m) steel spire within the building itself, hoisting it and securing it into position in a single day, claiming the title of tallest building. The triumph was short-lived; a month later Al Smith updated the plans for the Empire State Building, adding more stories and a 200-foot spire of its own so that dirigibles could moor there. The Chrysler Building would remain the tallest building in the world for just eleven months[a] before being overtaken by the Empire State Building.
The Chrysler Building's spire went up just one day before the October 1929 Wall Street Crash, triggering the economic turmoil of the Great Depression. The immediate impact of the Depression was a sharp contraction in building of all kinds; one architectural firm went from 17 filed plans for buildings up to 30 stories in 1929 to just three plans in 1930, the tallest being four stories.
In the shadow of the deepening Depression, the Metropolitan Opera abandoned its plans to move to a new three-block complex financed by John D. Rockefeller Jr. Rockefeller decided to proceed with the project, hiring three different architectural firms, including Hood and Harvey Wiley Corbett, who would leave the project to work on the Metropolitan Life North Building. The architects envisioned a plan for buildings arranged on several axes, clad in the same materials, windows grouped in vertical columns, and grand entrances. At the center was 30 Rockefeller Plaza. The buildings on the wings of the grand entrance were occupied by foreign governments (French, British, and Italian), who decided on the ornamentation for the building. The Rockefellers earmarked $150,000 ($2,249,701 adjusted for inflation) for art in the plaza alone, filling the space with paintings, reliefs, and sculptural forms.:16 The decorative features focus on the achievements of humankind, mythology, and stories of education and commerce.:18, 33
The heyday of Art Deco skyscrapers was effectively ended by the Great Depression, but Art Deco had proliferated outwards across the city in myriad forms. Art Deco proved a popular style for an expanding range of modern commercial edifices that proliferated during the period—department stores, news offices, and transportation.:24
The initial prevailing wisdom was that the real estate market would quickly recover as the stock market had drained capital from construction. To tide landowners over until economic conditions improved, many built "taxpayers" on their lots—single or two-story buildings. Despite being intended as temporary, many of these buildings remained for decades afterwards. One such Art Deco taxpayer was the East River Savings Bank on 22 Cortlandt Street, which replaced a fifteen-story building from the 1890s. The New York Times dubbed the lot "the most valuable piece of New York real estate for a tax payer in the city." Despite being a more modest building, the structure is appointed with polished stone eagles, interior marble, and at one time featured a 3,000-square-foot (280 m2) mural of the East River. Completed speculative buildings faced issues in the difficult economy—the Empire State Building took more in as a tourist attraction than from tenants, and office buildings across Midtown felt pinched by the Rockefeller Center's aggressive tactics to lure and keep tenants.:58
As the 1930s progressed, the rental market began to improve, and the pace of construction increased. The buildings that went up in this period tended to be more reserved, with grayer, more austere versions of Art Deco; Bletter suggests that this change was due to the lush, colorful look of the earlier style appearing "frivolous" in the 1930s and the influence of mechanization. Terra cotta decoration was replaced with smoother, rounded surfaces, and metal-clad streamlining influenced by vehicular designs.:69–71
Art Deco was a popular choice for the movie theaters and stages being built at the time, and apropos choice given that Art Deco itself found influence in design from films, from the German Expressionist films such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis.:64–66 Deco theaters in the city included the Ziegfeld Theater, an explicit example of the building-as-set designs with the facade including a proscenium to mirror the one indoors.:19
The rise of the Empire State and new Deco buildings along Fifth Avenue corresponded with its transformation from a "millionaire's mile" of wealthy residences to middle-class commercial business.:43–44 Tiffany & Co.'s flagship store at 749 Fifth Avenue, built 1940, was designed to feature luxurious amenities including central air conditioning.:37
The old Waldorf Astoria hotel had been demolished to make way for the Empire State Building, and the new building for the hotel drew heavy influence from it. Costing $42 million, architects Schultz & Weaver designed twin limestone and brick towers, and included a suite for the President and a private rail line from Grand Central.:41
Alongside the commercial boom of the 1920s, New York experienced a huge increase in residential construction; 20% of all new housing built in the United States in the 1920s was built in New York. Apartment buildings grew from 39% of construction in 1919 to 77% in 1926.:254 The Art Deco era paralleled New Yorkers' shift from tenement-style housing (multifamily homes with shared facilities) and row houses to apartment buildings (single-family rooms with separate bathrooms). In the 1920s, developers began building apartments targeting the middle class.:252–253 The growth of the subway drove new Art Deco architecture as well. Developers built new speculative housing in the undeveloped areas the new subway lines reached, with the end result being a decentralization of New York's population. While the total number of persons in the city grew 45 percent between 1910 and 1930, Manhattan's population density and total population decreased in the same period.:204
The great majority of these apartments throughout the boroughs topped out at six stories, because building seven stories or taller required more expensive fireproof materials.:23 Urban Art Deco was a way of appealing to prospective renters and keep them in the city, rather than the suburbs.:23
In Manhattan, Art Deco apartments sprouted up across the borough. Some of the first apartment buildings to receive influence from the Art Deco office buildings and skyscrapers downtown were the sister buildings The Majestic and The Century. Together with The Eldorado, these twin-towered apartments transformed Central Park West's skyline. Emery Roth was responsible for three of the large apartments in this section of town.
The downturn in the housing market of the 1930s encouraged New Dealers to focus on nonprofit and limited-profit housing to renew blighted parts of the city or expand beyond its current limits.:121–122 Examples of these limited-profit housing initiatives can be found throughout the boroughs, especially in Sunnyside, Queens. To save money, the middle-class Art Deco often used "cast stone" (i.e. concrete) instead of expensive stone, reusing molds to repeat designs and shapes.:24
Compared to the architects of Manhattan, many of the architects of the Deco in the outer boroughs were not well-known, and some were forgotten in a generation. While the famous architects of skyscrapers often studied at the Beaux-Arts school, the often-Jewish architects of places like the Grand Concourse and Ocean Ave studied at local art schools.:64–66
The densest concentration of Art Deco buildings in New York is in the west Bronx centered along the Grand Concourse, with roughly 300 buildings constructed between 1935 and 1941.:60 One of the first, and grandest, Art Deco apartments along the Concourse was the Park Plaza Apartments, completed 1931. Intended to rise ten stories before being damaged by fire during construction, the final building is eight stories and decorated with bright polychromatic terra cotta. Park Plaza was the first Bronx Deco apartments by Horace Ginsberg & Associates, who would help change the face of the borough. These buildings featured Deco hallmarks of geometric patterns and colored brick, with indirectly-lit public interiors floored with tile, framed with metal, and capped by mosaic ceilings. Private interiors featured sunken living rooms, wrap-around windows in the corners, and ample closet space; inside and out these apartments were designed to appeal to the fashion-conscious, "new money" middle class.:261–263:61–64
Few religious buildings in the Art Deco style were built in New York City. The Church of the Heavenly Rest and St. Luke's Lutheran Church have Art Deco elements to their more traditional, Neo-gothic elements. In Washington Heights, the Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist (now a synagogue) is a rare example of Christian Science Art Deco anywhere in the country. In Queens, the Rego Park Synagogue provides a late example of an Art Deco synagogue.
The pace of public works spending increased after World War I, and especially during the Depression.: Throughout the 1920s, New York's breakneck growth was largely unconstrained and unguided by government policy; no master blueprint for the city's future existed.:316
Corruption scandals forced Mayor Jimmy Walker from office in 1932, and Fiorello H. La Guardia assumed the office. La Guardia saw the Depression as an opportunity to remake the city,:316–317 and spearheaded a bevy of public works projects. La Guardia was a fervent New Dealer, and the city benefited greatly from Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal Works Progress Administration program, established to provide relief. In 1935 and 1936, the city alone received one-seventh of all WPA funds. The money went to projects such as a network of public pools across the city, with Crotona Park in the Bronx and Tompkinsville Pool in Staten Island being built with Art Deco flourishes.
Art Deco's influence affected many aspects of New York's public works during this period; by the late 1930s, most Art Deco buildings were municipal projects, not commercial ones.:71 The Health Building at 125 Worth Street c. 1932–1935 has metal grillwork and health-related designs around the entrances, designed by German craftsman Oscar Bruno Bach, who produced custom metalwork for the Chrysler and Empire State Buildings. Other Art Deco sanitation buildings include the Tallman Island Water Pollution Control Plant in Queens and the Manhattan Grit Chamber in East Harlem.
Other major Art Deco projects included the New York Municipal Airport, of which Marine Air Terminal remains, and the ventilation tunnels and portals of the Lincoln Tunnel, which opened in 1937 and connect New Jersey and Manhattan.
Legacy and preservation
The Museum of Modern Art exhibited a modern architecture show in 1932 that would introduce the International Style to New Yorkers; museum director Alfred H. Barr Jr. was dismissive of the Art Deco style and tastes of "low", commercial interests.:77 Where Art Deco maintained links to classicism and favored ornamentation, International Style favored undecorated facades; Bletter summed up the difference between the ethos of International Style as "less is more", and Art Deco as "more than enough.":41–42; 71–73 While the International Style's impact was blunted by the Depression, it became popular after World War II.:77 International Style buildings, with their emphasis on airy glass and the horizontal:180 were now modern and exciting, while Deco was outmoded and linked to the Depression-era privations.:3
In comparison to the International Style, Art Deco's role as the first international style, and its importance, were largely forgotten.:4 Art Deco was formally named and categorized as a style in the 1960s and reappraised.:3 Writing in 1975, Cervin Robinson noted that by the standard of direct stylistic influence, Art Deco had virtually no impact—but by its impact on the character of New York itself, Art Deco "helped crystallize our image of Gotham.":4
The decline in New York City's fortunes in the 1960s and 1970s caused the damage and loss of many Art Deco buildings.:61 The Noonan Plaza Apartments on the Grand Concourse suffered from heavy vandalism, with skylights ripped from frames to sell for scrap metal. It was eventually restored thanks to the efforts of Ginsberg's son and a new owner.
The modern historical preservation movement in New York City was sparked by the loss of Old Penn Station, leading to the establishment of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. The Commission is the largest municipal preservation organization in the United States. Some of the first Art Deco buildings so protected were the Chrysler Building and Chanin Building in 1978. Radio City Music Hall's interiors were landmarked the same year after a contentious battle with the Music Hall's owners, who wished to demolish it; the Commission received more than 100,000 signatures urging the landmark status.
Some Art Deco buildings were demolished before they were eligible for protection, such as the 12-story Bonwit Teller building at Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, which was demolished by Donald Trump in 1980, with the limestone reliefs Trump had promised to the Metropolitan Museum of Art jackhammered and destroyed. To avoid landmark status, landowners will sometimes rush to demolish the building or deface the facade.
Today, groups such as the Art Deco Society of New York (ADSNY) produce talks and tours about the city's architecture.
Below is a listing of city-landmarked Art Deco buildings within New York City. Items marked with a dagger (†) are also (or alternatively) listed on the National Register of Historic Places, those with a double dagger (‡) have landmarked interiors, and those with a section sign (§) are National Historic Landmarks.
|Bronx||1005 Jerome Avenue||Park Plaza Apartments †||1929–31||1981||NYCL #1077:329|
|Bronx||1619 Boston Road||Herman Ridder Junior High School||1929–1931||1990||NYCL #1628:326–327|
|Bronx||West 205th Street||Concourse Yard Bldgs. †||1933||2006 (NRHP)||NRHP #06000013|
|Bronx||1700 Fulton Avenue||Crotona Play Center †||1934–1936||2007||NYCL #2232:327|
|Bronx||105–149 West 168th Street||Noonan Plaza Apartments||1931||2010||NYCL #2400|
|Brooklyn||Grand Army Plaza||Central Library (Brooklyn Public Library) †||1911–1940||1997||NYCL #1963|
|Brooklyn||97–105 Willoughby Street||Former New York Telephone Company Headquarters †||1929–1930||2004||NYCL #2144|
|Brooklyn||450 Fulton Street||A.I. Namm & Son Department Store||2005||NYCL #2170|
|Brooklyn||4200 Fifth Avenue||Sunset Park Play Center ‡||1936||2007||NYCL #2242 (exterior), NYCL #2243 (interior)|
|Brooklyn||47–61 Greenpoint Avenue||Eberhard Faber Pencil Factory||1923–1924||2007||NYCL #2264 (Historic District)|
|Brooklyn||2307 Beverley Road||Sears Roebuck & Company Department Store||1932–1940||2012||NYCL #2469|
|Brooklyn||580 and 582–584 Myrtle Avenue||M. H. Renken Dairy Company Office Building and Engine Room Building||1932||2015||NYCL #2519|
|Brooklyn||158 Montague Street||National Title Guaranty Company Building||1929–1930||2017||NYCL #2587|
|Manhattan||350 Fifth Avenue||Empire State Building §||1932||1978||NYCL #2000|
|Manhattan||405 Lexington Avenue||Chrysler Building §||1932||1978||NYCL #992|
|Manhattan||1260 6th Ave||Radio City Music Hall ‡||1932||1978||NYCL #995|
|Manhattan||122 East 42nd Street||Chanin Building †||1927–1929||1978||NYCL #993|
|Manhattan||Between 5th and 6th Aves, between 48th and 51st Sts||Rockefeller Center §||1932–1939||1985||NYCL #1446|
|Manhattan||551 Fifth Avenue||Fred F. French Building ‡||1926–1927||1986||NYCL #1415:105|
|Manhattan||301 Park Avenue||Waldorf Astoria New York ‡||1931||1993 / ‡2017||NYCL #1812 (exterior), NYCL #2591 (interior)|
|Manhattan||1 Wall Street||Irving Trust Company Building †||1929–1931||2001||NYCL #2029|
|Manhattan||2701–2714 Broadway||Horn & Hardart Automat Cafeteria Building||1930||2007||NYCL #2192|
|Manhattan||22 East 40 Street (273–277 Madison Avenue)||275 Madison Avenue Building||1931||2009||NYCL #2286|
|Manhattan||1619 Broadway||Brill Building||1930–31||2010||NYCL #2387|
|Manhattan||500–506 Fifth Avenue||500 Fifth Avenue||1929–31||2010||NYCL #2427|
|Manhattan||70 Pine Street||City Services Building ‡||1930–1932||2011||NYCL #2411|
|Manhattan||86 Trinity Place||New York Curb Exchange §||1930–31||2012||NYCL #2515|
|Manhattan||228 East Broadway||Bialystoker Center and Home for the Aged||1929–31||2013||NYCL #2529|
|Manhattan||420 Lexington Avenue||Graybar Building||1927||2016||NYCL #2554|
|Manhattan||511 Lexington Avenue||Hotel Lexington||1928–29||2016||NYCL #2559|
|Manhattan||120–130 West 14th Street||The Salvation Army National and Territorial Headquarters||1929||2017||NYCL #2565|
|Queens||La Guardia Airport (Terminal A)||Marine Air Terminal ‡||1939||1980||NYCL #1110|
|Queens||162-24 Jamaica Avenue||Former J. Kurtz & Sons Store Building||1931||1981||NYCL #1132|
|Queens||90-33 160th Street||La Casina †||1933||1990 (NRHP), 1996||NRHP #89002259, NYCL #1940|
|Queens||107-55 Queens Boulevard||Ridgewood Savings Bank (Forest Hills)||1939||2000||NYCL #2066|
|Queens||90-04 161st Street||Suffolk Title and Guarantee Company Building (Former)||1929||2001||NYCL #2088|
|Queens||24-02 To 24–36 19th Street||Astoria Park Pool and Play Center||1936||2006||NYCL #2196|
|Queens||146-21 Jamaica Avenue||Jamaica Savings Bank (Sutphin Boulevard)||1938–1939||2010||NYCL #2393|
|Staten Island||168 New Dorp Lane||Lane Theater (interior) ‡||1937–38||1988||NYCL #1696:382|
|Staten Island||6 Victory Blvd||Lyons Pool Recreation Center ‡||1934–36||2008||NYCL #2234|
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