East Jersey

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Province of East Jersey

1674–1702
The original provinces of West and East Jersey are shown in yellow and green respectively. The Keith Line is shown in red, and the Coxe–Barclay Line is shown in orange.
The original provinces of West and East Jersey are shown in yellow and green respectively. The Keith Line is shown in red, and the Coxe–Barclay Line is shown in orange.
StatusColony of Kingdom of England
CapitalPerth Amboy
Common languagesEnglish, Dutch
Religion
Puritanism
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
Queen 
Colonial governor 
• 1674–1682
Philip Carteret (first)
• 1699–1702
Andrew Hamilton (last)
History 
• Established
1674
• Disestablished
1702
Preceded by
Succeeded by
New Netherland
Province of New Jersey

The Province of East Jersey, along with the Province of West Jersey, between 1674 and 1702 in accordance with the Quintipartite Deed were two distinct political divisions of the Province of New Jersey, which became the U.S. state of New Jersey. The two provinces were amalgamated in 1702. East Jersey's capital was located at Perth Amboy. Determination of an exact location for a border between West Jersey and East Jersey was often a matter of dispute.

The area comprising East Jersey had been part of New Netherland. Early settlement (including today's Bergen and Hudson counties) by the Dutch included Pavonia (1633), Vriessendael (1640) and Achter Col (1642) These settlements were compromised in Kieft's War (1643–1645) and the Peach Tree War (1655–1660). Settlers again returned to the western shores of the Hudson River in the 1660 formation of Bergen, New Netherland, which would become the first permanent European settlement in the territory of the modern state of New Jersey. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, on August 27, 1664, New Amsterdam surrendered to English forces.[1]

Between 1664 and 1674 most settlement was from other parts of the Americas, especially New England, Long Island, and the West Indies. Elizabethtown and Newark in particular had a strong Puritan character. South of the Raritan River the Monmouth Tract was developed primarily by Quakers from Long Island. In 1675, East Jersey was partitioned into four counties for administrative purposes: Bergen County, Essex County, Middlesex County, and Monmouth County. There were seven established towns: Shrewsbury, Middleton, Piscataway, Woodbridge, Elizabethtown, Newark, and Bergen. In a survey taken in 1684 the population was estimated to be 3500 individuals in about 700 families. (African slaves were not included).

Although a number of the East Jersey proprietors in England were Quakers and the governor through most of the 1680s was the leading Quaker Robert Barclay, the Quaker influence on government was not significant. Even the immigration instigated by Barclay was oriented toward promoting Scottish influence more than Quaker influence. In 1682 Barclay and the other Scottish proprietors began the development of Perth Amboy as the capital of the province. In 1687 James II permitted ships to be cleared at Perth Amboy.[2]

Frequent disputes between the residents and the mostly-absentee proprietors over land ownership and quitrents plagued the province until its surrender to Queen Anne's government in 1702.

Summary of Boundary Lines[3]
Date Boundary Name Description
1674 Original Duke of York Line

(did not recognize John Fenwick’s holdings)

Barnegat Bay to Rancocas Creek on the Delaware River just north of present-day Philadelphia.
1676 Quintipartite Deed Line

(between George Carteret on the East, and William Penn, Gawen Lawrie, Nicholas Lucas, and Edward Byllynge on the West, except for 10% to John Fenwick)

On the north from a point 11deg 40' latitude on the Delaware River extending southward on a straight and direct line to the east side of Little Egg-Harbor.
1687 William Emley / John Reid Adjustment (commissioners from West and East Jersey respectively) Adjusted description on the Delaware fifty minutes more westerly due to magnetic compass variation
1687 Keith Line aka Province Line

(Surveyed north only to the south branch of the Raritan River)

Stopped by Governor Daniel Coxe of West Jersey and Governor Robert Barclay of East Jersey
1688 Coxe-Barclay Line Survey Extended the Keith Line from the Raritan River along specific properties that defined the eastern boundaries of present- day Morris and Sussex Counties and the northern border of Somerset County
1696 Thornton Line Survey Attempted to correct errors from previous surveys
1702 East and West Jersey United Violence became so obsessive, that East and West proprietors gave up their individual governing rights to Queen Anne
1743 Lawrence Line Survey

(Land ownership disputes continued. West Jersey proprietors attempted to fund survey but failed. East Jersey Proprietors then hired John Lawrence)

Adopted by NJ supreme court in 1855 as the final arbiter of all land disputes. Today defines boundary for Walpack, Sandyston, Stillwater, Hampton, and Green Townships

Constitution[edit]

See: History of the New Jersey State Constitution#East Jersey Constitution

Governors of East Jersey (1674–1702)[edit]

See also: Lords Proprietor (1665–1703) and Governors under the Proprietors (1665–1674)
Philip Carteret 1674–1682
Robert Barclay 1682–1688
Edmund Andros 1688–1689 Governed as the Dominion of New England
Andrew Hamilton 1692–1697
Jeremiah Basse 1698–1699
Andrew Hamilton 1699–1702

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ New Jersey Guide to Its Present and Past (Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration. New York: The Viking Press, 1939)
  2. ^ "America and West Indies: October 1697." Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies: Volume 16, 1697-1698. Ed. J W Fortescue. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1905. 1-4. British History Online website Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  3. ^ Snyder, John. "The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606–1968" (PDF).

Other sources[edit]

  • Winfield, Charles H. History of the County of Hudson, New Jersey (New York: Kennard & Hay Printing Company, 1874)
  • Harvey, Cornelius B., ed. Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, New Jersey (New York: The New Jersey Genealogical Publishing Co., 1900)
  • John Fiske. The Dutch and Quaker Colonies of America. Vol. I (New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1903)
  • Lovero, Joan D. Hudson County: The Left Bank (Sun Valley. CA: American Historical Press, 1999)

External links[edit]

  • Where was the West Jersey/East Jersey line?
  • Bergen Township, Past and Present
  • Jersey City's Colonial Background
  • Overview of Hudson County Heritage
  • Bergen County Historic Society
  • Colonial Charters, Grants and Related Documents (at "New Jersey"). The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. Lillian Goldman Law Library (Yale Law School). Retrieved 2010-03-14. This website has links to the following documents:
    • 1664 – The Duke of York's Release to John Ford Berkeley, and Sir George Carteret, 24 June
    • 1664 – The Concession and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors of the Province of New Caesarea, or New Jersey, to and With All and Every the Adventurers and All Such as Shall Settle or Plant There
    • 1672 – A Declaration of the True Intent and Meaning of us the Lords Proprietors, and Explanation of There Concessions Made to the Adventurers and Planters of New Caesarea or New Jersey
    • 1674 – His Royal Highness's Grant to the Lords Proprietors, Sir George Carteret, 29 July
    • 1676 – The Charter or Fundamental Laws, of West New Jersey, Agreed Upon
    • 1676 – Quintipartite Deed of Revision, Between E. and W Jersey: July 1
    • 1680 – Duke of York's Second Grant to William Penn, Gawn Lawry, Nicholas Lucas, John Eldridge, Edmund Warner, and Edward Byllynge, for the Soil and Government of West New Jersey-August 6
    • 1681 – Province of West New-Jersey, in America, The 25th of the Ninth Month Called November
    • 1682 – Duke of York's Confirmation to the 24 Proprietors: 14 March
    • 1683 – The Fundamental Constitutions for the Province of East New Jersey in America
    • 1683 – The King's Letter Recognizing the Proprietors' Right to the Soil and Government
    • 1702 – Surrender from the Proprietors of East and West New Jersey, of Their Pretended Right of Government to Her Majesty
    • 1709 – The Queen's Acceptance of the Surrender of Government; April 17
    • 1712 – Charles II's Grant of New England to the Duke of York, 1676 – Exemplified by Queen Anne
    • 1776 – Constitution of New Jersey
  • The journall of the procedure of the governor and Councill of the province of East New Jersey : from and after the first day of December Anno Dmni 1682

Coordinates: 40°28′01″N 74°19′59″W / 40.467°N 74.333°W / 40.467; -74.333