|16th century CE-present|
|The Brahmic script and its descendants|
Gurmukhī (Punjabi: ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, IPA: [ˈɡʊɾmʊkʰiː]) is an abugida developed from the Laṇḍā scripts, standardized and used by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad (1504–1552). Commonly regarded as a Sikh script, Gurmukhi is used in Punjab, India as the official script of the Punjabi language.
Modern Gurmukhī has thirty-five original letters, hence its common alternative term pentī or "the thirty-five," plus six additional consonants, nine vowel diacritics, two diacritics for nasal sounds, one diacritic that geminates consonants and three subscript characters.
- 1 History and development
- 2 Alphabet
- 3 Unicode
- 4 Digitization of Gurmukhī manuscripts
- 5 Bibliography
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
History and development
The Gurmukhī script is generally believed to have roots in the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet by way of the Brahmi script, which developed further into the Northwestern group (Sharada, or Śāradā, and its descendants, including Landa and Takri), the Central group (Nagari and its descendants, including Devanagari, Gujarati and Modi) and the Eastern group (evolved from Siddhaṃ, including Bangla, Tibetan, and some Nepali scripts), as well as several prominent writing systems of Southeast Asia and Sinhala in Sri Lanka, in addition to scripts used historically in Central Asia for extinct languages like Saka and Tocharian. Gurmukhi is derived from Sharada in the Northwestern group, of which it is the only major surviving member, with full modern currency. Notable features:
- It is an abugida in which all consonants have an inherent vowel, /ə/. Diacritics, which can appear above, below, before or after the consonant they are applied to, are used to change the inherent vowel.
- When they appear at the beginning of a syllable, vowels are written as independent letters.
- To form consonant clusters, Gurmukhi uniquely affixes subscript letters at the bottom of standard characters, rather than using the true conjunct symbols used by other scripts, which merge parts of each letter into a distinct character of its own.
- Punjabi is a tonal language with three tones. These are indicated in writing using the formerly voiced aspirated consonants (gh, dh, bh, etc.) and the intervocalic h.
|Possible derivation of Gurmukhi from earlier writing systems.[note 1] The Greek alphabet, also descended from Phoenician, is included for comparison.|
Gurmukhi evolved in cultural and historical circumstances notably different from other regional scripts, for the purpose of recording scriptures of Sikhism, a far less Sanskritized cultural tradition than others of the subcontinent. This independence from the Sanskritic model allowed it the freedom to evolve unique orthographical features. These include:
- Three basic carrier vowels, integrated into the traditional Gurmukhi character set, using the vowel markers to write independent vowels, instead of distinctly separate characters for each of these vowels as in other scripts;
- a drastic reduction in the number and importance of conjunct characters (similar to Brahmi, and characteristic of Northwestern abugidas as opposed to others);
- a unique standard ordering of characters that somewhat diverges from the traditional vargiya, or Sanskritic, ordering of characters;
- the omission of consonants representing sounds found in Sanskrit (e.g. sibilants like /ʃ/ and /ʂ/), but naturally lost in most modern Indo-Aryan languages, though such characters were often retained in their respective consonant inventories as placeholders and archaisms, and the sounds frequently reintroduced through later circumstances;
- the development of distinct new letters for sounds better reflecting the vernacular language spoken during the time of its development (e.g. for /ɽ/, and the sound shift that merged Sanskrit /ʂ/ and /kʰ/ to Punjabi /kʰ/);
- a gemination diacritic, a unique feature among native subcontinental scripts, which help to illustrate the preserved Middle Indo-Aryan geminates distinctive of Punjabi;
and other features.
From the 10th century onwards, regional differences started to appear between the Sharada script used in Punjab, the Hill States (partly Himachal Pradesh) and Kashmir. Sharada proper was eventually restricted to very limited ceremonial use in Kashmir, as it grew increasingly unsuitable for writing the Kashmiri language. With the last known inscription dating to 1204 C.E., the early 13th century marks a milestone in the development of Sharada. The regional variety in Punjab continued to evolve from this stage through the 14th century; during this period it starts to appear in forms closely resembling Gurmukhī and other Landa scripts. By the 15th century, Sharada had evolved so considerably that epigraphists denote the script at this point by a special name, Devāśeṣa. Tarlochan Singh Bedi (1999) prefers the name Pritham Gurmukhī, or Proto-Gurmukhī.
The Sikh gurus adopted proto-Gurmukhī to write the Guru Granth Sahib, the religious scriptures of the Sikhs. The Takri alphabet developed through the Devāśeṣa stage of the Sharada script from the 14th-18th centuries and is found mainly in the Hill States such as Chamba, Himachal Pradesh and surrounding areas, where it is called Chambyali, and in Jammu Division, where it is known as Dogri. The local Takri variants got the status of official scripts in some of the Punjab Hill States, and were used for both administrative and literary purposes until the 19th century. After 1948, when Himachal Pradesh was established as an administrative unit, the local Takri variants were replaced by Devanagari.
Meanwhile, the mercantile scripts of Punjab known as the Laṇḍā scripts were normally not used for literary purposes. Landa means alphabet "without tail", implying that the script did not have vowel symbols. In Punjab, there were at least ten different scripts classified as Laṇḍā, Mahajani being the most popular. The Laṇḍā scripts were used for household and trade purposes. Compared to the Laṇḍā, Sikh Gurus favored the use of Proto-Gurmukhī, because of the difficulties involved in pronouncing words without vowel signs.
The usage of Gurmukhī letters in the Guru Granth Sahib meant that the script developed its own orthographical rules. In the following epochs, Gurmukhī became the prime script applied for the literary writings of the Sikhs. The Singh Sabha Movement of the late 1800s, a movement to revitalize Sikh institutions which had declined during colonial rule after the fall of the Sikh Empire, also advocated for the usage of the Gurmukhi script for mass media, with print media publications and Punjabi-language newspapers established in the 1880s. Later in the 20th century, after the struggle of the Punjabi Suba movement, from the founding of modern India in the 1940s to the 1960s, the script was given the authority as the official script of the Punjab, India.
The term Gurmukhī
The prevalent view among Punjabi linguists is that as in the early stages the Gurmukhī letters were primarily used by the Guru's followers, Gurmukhs (literally, those who face, or follow, the Guru, as opposed to a Manmukh); the script thus came to be known as Gurmukhī, "the script of those guided by the Guru." Guru Angad is credited in the Sikh tradition with the creation and standardization of Gurmukhi script from earlier Śāradā-descended scripts native to the region. It is now the standard writing script for the Punjabi language in India. The original Sikh scriptures and most of the historic Sikh literature have been written in the Gurmukhi script.
Although the word Gurmukhī has been commonly translated as "from the Mouth of the Guru," the term used for the Punjabi script has somewhat different connotations. The opinion traditional scholars for this is that as the Sikh holy writings, before they were written down, were uttered by the Gurus, they came to be known as Gurmukhī or the "Utterance of the Guru". Consequently, the script that was used for scribing the utterance was also given the same name. The term that would mean "by the Guru's mouth" would be "Gurmū̃hī̃," which sounds considerably different but looks similar in Latin script.
The Gurmukhī alphabet contains thirty-five letters (akkhar, plural akkharā̃). The first three are distinct because they form the basis for vowels and are not consonants (vianjan) like the remaining letters are, and except for the second letter ɛṛa are never used on their own. See the section on vowels for further details.
The letters ਙ /ŋəŋːaː/ and ਞ /ɲəɲːaː / are not used in modern Gurmukhi. They cannot begin a syllable or be placed between two consonants, and the sounds they represent occur most often as allophones of [n] before specific consonant phonemes.
The pronunciation of ਵ can vary allophonically between /ʋ/ and /w/.
- à – grave accent = tonal consonant.
- To differentiate between consonants, the Punjabi tonal consonants kà, chà, ṭà, tà, and pà are often transliterated in the way of the Hindi voiced aspirate consonants gha, jha, ḍha, dha, and bha respectively, although Punjabi does not have these sounds.
- Tones in Punjabi can be either rising or falling; in the pronunciation of Gurmukhī letters they are falling, hence the grave accent as opposed to the acute.
In addition to these, there are six consonants in official usage, referred to as the navīn ṭoli or navīn varag, meaning "new group," created by placing a dot (bindi) at the foot (pair) of the consonant (these are not present in the Guru Granth Sahib). These are used most often for loanwords, though not exclusively:
|ਸ਼||səsːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||/ʃə/||ਖ਼||kʰəkʰːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||/xə/||ਗ਼||gəgːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||/ɣə/|
|ਜ਼||d͡ʒəd͡ʒːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||/zə/||ਫ਼||pʰəpʰːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||/fə/||ਲ਼||ləlːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||/ɭə/|
The character ਲ਼ /ɭ/ was only recently added to the Gurmukhī alphabet. It was not a part of the traditional orthography, as the distinctive phonological difference between 'l' and 'ɭ' was not reflected in the script. Some sources do not consider it a separate letter. Other characters, like [ਕ਼] /qə/, are also on rare occasion used unofficially, chiefly for transliterating old writings in Persian and Urdu, the knowledge of which is less relevant in modern times.
Three "subscript" letters, called pairī̃ akkhar, or "letters at the foot" are utilised in Gurmukhī: forms of ਹ(h), ਰ(r), and ਵ(v).
The subscript ਰ(r) and ਵ(v) are used to make consonant clusters and behave similarly; subjoined ਹ(h) raises tone.
|Subscript letter||Original form||Usage|
|੍ਰ||Subjoined /ɾ/ ਰ→ ੍ਰ||For example, the letter ਪ(p) with a regular ਰ(r) following it would yield the word ਪਰ /pəɾᵊ/ ("but"), but with a subjoined ਰ would appear as ਪ੍ਰ- (/prə-/), resulting in a consonant cluster, as in the word ਪ੍ਰਬੰਧਕ (/pɾəbə́nd̪əkᵊ/, "managerial, administrative"), as opposed to ਪਰਬੰਧਕ /pəɾᵊbə́nd̪əkᵊ/, the Punjabi form of the word used in natural speech in less formal settings (the Punjabi reflex for Sanskrit /pɾə-/ is /pəɾ-/) . This subscript letter is commonly used in Punjabi, not just for Sanskritized words, but also for personal names, some native dialectal words, loanwords from other languages like English, etc.|
|੍ਵ||Subjoined /ʋ/ ਵ→ ੍ਵ||Used occasionally in Gurbani (Sikh religious scriptures) but rare in modern usage, it is largely confined to creating the cluster /sʋə-/ in words borrowed from Sanskrit, the reflex of which in Punjabi is /sʊ-/, e.g. Sanskrit ਸ੍ਵਪ੍ ਨ /s̪ʋɐ́p.n̪ɐ/→Punjabi ਸੁਪਨਾ /'sʊpᵊna:/, "dream," cf. Hindi-Urdu /səpna:/.
For example, ਸ with a subjoined ਵ would produce ਸ੍ਵ (sʋə-) as in the Sanskrit word ਸ੍ਵਰਗ (/svəɾəgə/, "heaven"), but followed by a regular ਵ would yield ਸਵ- (səv-) as in the common word ਸਵਰਗ (/səʋəɾəgᵊ/, "heaven"), borrowed earlier from Sanskrit but subsequently changed. The natural Punjabi reflex, ਸੁਰਗ /sʊɾəgᵊ/, is also used in everyday speech.
|੍ਹ||Subjoined /ɦ/ ਹ→ ੍ਹ||The most common subscript, this character does not create consonant clusters, but serves as part of Punjabi's characteristic tone system, indicating a raised tone. It behaves the same way in its use as the regular ਹ(h) does in non-word-initial positions. The regular ਹ(h) is pronounced at the beginning of words but not in other positions, where it instead raises the tone. The difference in usage is that the regular ਹ is used after vowels and the subscript version when there is no vowel, and is attached to consonants.
For example, the regular ਹ is used after vowels as in ਮੀਂਹ (transliterated as mĩh, to show tonality, mĩ́, "rain"). The subjoined ਹ(h) acts the same way but instead is used under consonants: ਚ(ch) followed by ੜ(ṛ) yields ਚੜ (chəṛ), but not until the rising tone is introduced via a subscript ਹ(h) does it properly spell the word ਚੜ੍ਹ (chə́ṛ, "climb").
This character's function is analogous to the udāt symbol (ੑ U+0A51), which occurs in older texts and indicates a high tone.
In addition to the three subjoined letters, there is a half-form of the letter Yayya, /j/ ਯ→੍ਯ, also used exclusively for Sanskrit borrowings, and even then rarely. Use of the subjoined /ʋ/ and conjunct /j/, already rare, is increasingly scarce in modern contexts.
To express vowels, Gurmukhī, as an abugida, makes use of obligatory diacritics called lagā mātarā (plural lagē matarē). Gurmukhī is similar to Brahmi scripts in that all consonants are followed by an inherent 'a' sound (unless at the end of a word when the 'a' is usually dropped). This inherent vowel sound can be changed by using dependent vowel signs which attach to a bearing consonant. In some cases, dependent vowel signs cannot be used – at the beginning of a word or syllable for instance – and so an independent vowel character is used instead.
Independent vowels are constructed using three bearer characters: ūṛā (ੳ), aiṛā (ਅ) and īṛī (ੲ). With the exception of aiṛā (which represents the vowel 'a') they are never used without additional vowel signs.
|Vowel||Transcription||IPA||Closest English equivalent|
|ਅ||(none)||ਕ||Muktā||a||[ə]||like a in about|
|ਆ||ਾ||ਕਾ||Kannā||ā||[aː] , [äː]||like a in car|
|ਇ||ਿ||ਕਿ||Sihārī||i||[ɪ]||like i in it|
|ਈ||ੀ||ਕੀ||Bihārī||ī||[iː]||like i in litre|
|ਉ||ੁ||ਕੁ||Onkaṛ||u||[ʊ]||like u in put|
|ਊ||ੂ||ਕੂ||Dulenkaṛ||ū||[uː]||like u in spruce|
|ਏ||ੇ||ਕੇ||Lāvā̃||ē||[eː]||like e in Chile|
|ਐ||ੈ||ਕੈ||Dulāvā̃||e||[ɛː]||like e in sell|
|ਓ||ੋ||ਕੋ||Hōṛā||ō||[oː]||like o in more|
|ਔ||ੌ||ਕੌ||Kanoṛā||o||[ɔː]||like o in off|
Dotted circles represent the bearer consonant. Vowels are always pronounced after the consonant they are attached to. Thus, sihārī is always written to the left, but pronounced after the character on the right.
Ṭippī ( ੰ ) and bindī ( ਂ ) are used for producing a nasal phoneme depending on the following obstruent or a nasal vowel at the end of a word. All short vowels are nasalized using ṭippī and all long vowels are nasalized using bindī except for dulenkaṛ ( ੂ ), which uses ṭippi instead.
|Diacritic usage||Result||Examples (IPA)|
|Ṭippī on short vowel (/ə/, /ɪ/, /ʊ/), or long vowel /u:/, before non-nasal consonant||Adds nasal consonant at same place of articulation as following consonant
(/ns/, /n̪t̪/, /ɳɖ/, /mb/, /ŋg/, /nt͡ʃ/ etc.)
|ਹੰਸ /ɦənsᵊ/ "goose"|
ਅੰਤ /ən̪t̪ᵊ/ "end"
ਗੰਢ /gə́ɳɖᵊ/ "knot"
ਅੰਬ /əmbᵊ/ "mango"
ਸਿੰਗ /sɪŋgᵊ/ "horn, antler"
ਕੁੰਜੀ / kʊɲd͡ʒiː/ "key"
ਗੂੰਜ /guːɲd͡ʒᵊ/ "roar"
ਲੂੰਬੜੀ /luːmbᵊɽiː/ "fox"
|Bindī over long vowel (/a:/, /e:/, /i:/, /o:/, /u:/, /ɛ:/, /ɔː/)
before non-nasal consonant not including /h/
|Adds nasal consonant at same place of articulation as following consonant (/ns/, /n̪t̪/, /ɳɖ/, /mb/, /ŋg/, /nt͡ʃ/ etc.).
May also secondarily nasalize the vowel
|ਕਾਂਸੀ /kaːnsiː/ "bronze"|
ਕੇਂਦਰ /keːn̯d̯əɾᵊ/ "center, core, headquarters"
ਗੁਆਂਢੀ /gʊáːɳɖiː/ "neighbor"
ਚੌਂਕ /t͡ʃɔːŋkᵊ/ "crossroads, plaza"
ਜਾਂਚ /d͡ʒaːɲt͡ʃᵊ/ "trial, examination"
|Ṭippī over consonants followed by long vowel /u:/ (not stand-alone vowel ਊ),
at open syllable at end of word, or ending in /ɦ/
|Vowel nasalization||ਤੂੰ /t̪ũː/ "you"|
ਸਾਨੂੰ /saːnũː/ "to us"
ਮੂੰਹ /mũːɦ/ "mouth"
|Ṭippī on short vowel before nasal consonant (/n̪/ or /m/)||Gemination of nasal consonant.
Ṭippī is used to geminate nasal consonants instead of addhak
|ਇੰਨਾ /ɪn̪:a:/ "this much"|
ਕੰਮ /kəm:ᵊ/ "work"
|Bindī over long vowel (/a:/, /e:/, /i:/, /o:/, /u:/, /ɛ:/, /ɔː/),
at open syllable at end of word, or ending in /ɦ/
|Vowel nasalization||ਬਾਂਹ /bã́h/ "arm"|
ਮੈਂ /mɛ̃ː/ "I, me"
ਅਸੀਂ /əsĩː/ "we, us"
ਤੋਂ /t̪õː/ "from"
ਸਿਊਂ /sɪ.ũː/ "sew"
Older texts may follow other conventions.
The use of addhak ( ੱ ) (IPA: ['ə́d̪:əkᵊ]) indicates that the following consonant is geminate, meaning that the subsequent consonant is doubled or reinforced. Consonant length is distinctive in the Punjabi language and the use of this diacritic can change the meaning of a word, for example:
|Without addhak||Transliteration||Meaning||With addhak||Transliteration||Meaning|
|ਪਤਾ||patā||'aware' (of something)||ਪੱਤਾ||pattā||'leaf'|
The halant ( ੍ ) character is not used when writing Punjabi in Gurmukhī. However, it may occasionally be used in Sanskritised text or in dictionaries for extra phonetic information. When it is used, it represents the suppression of the inherent vowel.
The effect of this is shown below:
- ਕ – kə
- ਕ੍ – k
The visarg symbol (ਃ U+0A03) is used very occasionally in Gurmukhī. It can represent an abbreviation, as the period is used in English, though the period for abbreviation, like commas, exclamation points, and other Western punctuation, is freely used in modern Gurmukhi.
Gurmukhī has its own set of digits, used exactly as in other versions of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system. These are used extensively in older texts. In modern contexts, they are sometimes replaced by standard Western Arabic numerals.
|Numeral||Name, IPA||Simple Transliteration||Number|
The Unicode block for Gurmukhī is U+0A00–U+0A7F:
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
Digitization of Gurmukhī manuscripts
Panjab Digital Library has taken up digitization of all available manuscripts of Gurmukhī Script. The script has been in formal use since the 1500s, and a lot of literature written within this time period is still traceable. Panjab Digital Library has digitized over 5 million pages from different manuscripts and most of them are available online.
- Following books/articles have been written on the origins of the Gurmukhī script (all in the Punjabi language):
- Gurbaksh (G.B.) Singh. Gurmukhi Lipi da Janam te Vikas. Chandigarh: Punjab University, 1950.
- Ishar Singh Tãgh, Dr. Gurmukhi Lipi da Vigyamulak Adhiyan. Patiala: Jodh Singh Karamjit Singh.
- Kala Singh Bedi, Dr. Lipi da Vikas. Patiala: Punjabi University, 1995.
- Kartar Singh Dakha. Gurmukhi te Hindi da Takra. 1948.
- Piara Singh Padam, Prof. Gurmukhi Lipi da Itihas. Patiala: Kalgidhar Kalam Foundation Kalam Mandir, 1953.
- Prem Parkash Singh, Dr. "Gurmukhi di Utpati." Khoj Patrika, Patiala: Punjabi University.
- Pritam Singh, Prof. "Gurmukhi Lipi." Khoj Patrika. p. 110, vol.36, 1992. Patiala: Punjabi University.
- Sohan Singh Galautra. Punjab dian Lipiã.
- Tarlochan Singh Bedi, Dr. Gurmukhi Lipi da Janam te Vikas. Patiala: Punjabi University, 1999.
- The Gurmukhi character ਖ [kha] may have been originally derived from the Brahmi character denoting [ṣa], as the Sanskrit sounds /ʂə/ and /kʰə/ merged into /kʰə/ in Punjabi. Any phonemic contrast was lost, with no distinct character for [ṣa] remaining.
- Mandair, Arvind-Pal S.; Shackle, Christopher; Singh, Gurharpal (December 16, 2013). Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity. Routledge. p. 13, Quote: "creation of a pothi in distinct Sikh script (Gurmukhi) seem to relate to the immediate religio–political context ...". ISBN 9781136846342. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
Mann, Gurinder Singh; Numrich, Paul; Williams, Raymond (2007). Buddhists, Hindus, and Sikhs in America. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 100, Quote: "He modified the existing writing systems of his time to create Gurmukhi, the script of the Sikhs; then ...". ISBN 9780198044246. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
Shani, Giorgio (March 2002). "The Territorialization of Identity: Sikh Nationalism in the Diaspora". Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism. 2: 11. doi:10.1111/j.1754-9469.2002.tb00014.x.
Harjeet Singh Gill (1996). Peter T. Daniels; William Bright (eds.). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 395. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.
- Peter T. Daniels; William Bright (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 395. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.
- Danesh Jain; George Cardona (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- Harnik Deol, Religion and Nationalism in India. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-415-20108-X, 9780415201087. Page 22. "(...) the compositions in the Sikh holy book, Adi Granth, are a melange of various dialects, often coalesced under the generic title of Sant Bhasha."
The making of Sikh scripture by Gurinder Singh Mann. Published by Oxford University Press US, 2001. ISBN 0-19-513024-3, ISBN 978-0-19-513024-9 Page 5. "The language of the hymns recorded in the Adi Granth has been called Sant Bhasha, a kind of lingua franca used by the medieval saint-poets of northern India. But the broad range of contributors to the text produced a complex mix of regional dialects."
Surindar Singh Kohli, History of Punjabi Literature. Page 48. National Book, 1993. ISBN 81-7116-141-3, ISBN 978-81-7116-141-6. "When we go through the hymns and compositions of the Guru written in Sant Bhasha (saint-language), it appears that some Indian saint of 16th century..."
Nirmal Dass, Songs of the Saints from the Adi Granth. SUNY Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7914-4683-2, ISBN 978-0-7914-4683-6. Page 13. "Any attempt at translating songs from the Adi Granth certainly involves working not with one language, but several, along with dialectical differences. The languages used by the saints range from Sanskrit; regional Prakrits; western, eastern and southern Apabhramsa; and Sahiskriti. More particularly, we find sant bhasha, Marathi, Old Hindi, central and Lehndi Panjabi, Sgettland Persian. There are also many dialects deployed, such as Purbi Marwari, Bangru, Dakhni, Malwai, and Awadhi."
- Harjeet Singh Gill (1996). Peter T. Daniels; William Bright (eds.). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.
- Ager, Simon (1998). "Punjabi language, alphabets and pronunciation". Omniglot. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
- "Let's Learn Punjabi: Research Centre for Punjabi Language Technology, Punjabi University, Patiala". learnpunjabi.org. Punjabi University, Patiala. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Amandeep (2018). "A New Approach to Punjabi Text Steganography using Naveen Toli" (PDF). Department of Computer Science & Technology, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India. ISBN 978-8-193-38970-6.
- Danesh Jain; George Cardona (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- Danesh Jain; George Cardona (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 94–99, 72–73. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- Danesh Jain; George Cardona (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- Danesh Jain; George Cardona (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- Danesh Jain; George Cardona (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 594. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- Danesh Jain; George Cardona (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- Pandey, Anshuman (2009-03-25). "N3545: Proposal to Encode the Sharada Script in ISO/IEC 10646" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2.
- Pandey, Anshuman (2009-01-29). "N4159: Proposal to Encode the Multani Script in ISO/IEC 10646" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2.
- Deol, Dr. Harnik (2003). Religion and Nationalism in India: The Case of the Punjab (illustrated ed.). Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 9781134635351. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge. pp. xvii–xviii. ISBN 978-0-415-26604-8.
- Danesh Jain; George Cardona (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 596. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- Holloway, Stephanie (19 July 2016). "ScriptSource - Gurmukhi". ScriptSource. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Bhatia, Tej (1993). Punjabi: A cognitive-descriptive grammar. Routledge. p. 367. ISBN 9780415003209.
- Panjab Digital Library
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