HP Roman

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In computing HP Roman is a family of character sets consisting of HP Roman Extension, HP Roman-8, HP Roman-9 and several variants. Originally introduced by Hewlett-Packard around 1978, revisions and adaptations were published several times up to 1999. The 1985 revisions were later standardized as IBM codepages 1050 and 1051. Supporting many European languages, the character sets were used by various HP workstations, terminals, calculators as well as many printers, also from third-parties.

Overview[edit]

HP Roman is a family of single byte character encodings supporting several Latin script based languages of Europe. It was originally introduced by Hewlett-Packard around 1978 as 7- and 8-bit HP Roman Extension for some of their computer terminals and printers. Early versions of the 8-bit variant were also used by some HP workstations in 1978/1979. Several revisions led to more characters being added before the 8-bit variant of the character set became officially known as HP Roman-8 in 1983.[1] Soon later, this became the default character set of the HP-UX[2] operating system and the page description language PCL for inkjet[3][4] and laser printers in 1984. The character set was again expanded in 1985.[5][6] A modified adaptation of the 1984 definition of Roman-8 was used in the HP Portable series of computers,[7][8] whereas a derivation of the updated 1985 definition of Roman-8 was used in several early RPL calculators and corresponding thermal printers since 1986.[9][10] The latest off-spring of the family is HP Roman-9, which was introduced in 1999 to include the euro sign.[11] PCL Ventura International is based on HP Roman-8.

Character set[edit]

Roman Extension[edit]

The character set was originally introduced by Hewlett-Packard as extended ASCII 7-bit codepage named HP Roman Extension[12][13], which existed at least since 1978.[14][15][16][17][18] This character set was used as a secondary character set in conjunction with the primary character set, which was identical to ASCII, except for character 127, which was a medium shaded box instead of the delete character. The first 32 characters, that normally functioned as C0 control codes, also had graphical non-control alternatives, that could appear during self-test or display functions mode. Switching between character sets was done using the Shift Out and Shift In characters, or alternatively, on systems supporting 8-bit mode, using the high bit of the character. Before the name "Roman-8" was established for the 8-bit variant in 1983, this was sometimes called "8-bit Roman Extension" or "HP Roman-8 Extension". Over the years both variants were revised to include more characters. The final 1985 revision of the secondary character set was also standardized by IBM in 1989 as code page 1050 (CP1050 or ibm-1050).[19]

Although strictly speaking not part of Roman Extension, the following table shows those rows of the primary character set that differed from ASCII. Note that the first two rows are normally the same and only appear as graphical characters in special circumstances, as desribed above. Although some of the Unicode control pictures conventionally use three characters rather than two, those ‘diagonal lettering glyphs are only exemplary; alternate representations may be, and often are used in the visible display of control codes’.[20]

HP Roman Primary (1982)[12]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
NU
2400
SH
2401
SX
2402
EX
2403
ET
2404
EQ
2405
AK
2406
🔔
1F514

2408

2409

240A

240B

240C

240D
SO
240E

240F
1_
16
DL
2410
D1
2411
D2
2412
D3
2413
D4
2414
NK
2415
SY
2416
EB
2417
CN
2418

2419
SB
241A
EC
241B

241C

241D

241E

241F
7_
112
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E

2592

The following table shows the 1982 version; a current variant is shown in the Roman-8 section below. The table assumes 8-bit mode is used; if not, subtract 128 (8016) from the character code.

HP Roman Extension (1982)[12]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
A_
160
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
´
00B4
ˋ
02CB
 
 
¨
00A8
˜
02DC
 
 
 
 
[a]
20A4
B_
176

203E
 
 
 
 
˚
02DA
 
 
ç
00E7
Ñ
00D1
ñ
00F1
¡
00A1
¿
00BF
¤
00A4
£
00A3
 
 
§
00A7
 
 
 
 
C_
192
â
00E2
ê
00EA
ô
00F4
û
00FB
á
00E1
é
00E9
ó
00F3
ú
00FA
à
00E0
è
00E8
ò
00F2
ù
00F9
ä
00E4
ë
00EB
ö
00F6
ü
00FC
D_
208
Å
00C5
î
00EE
Ø
00D8
Æ
00C6
å
00E5
í
00ED
ø
00F8
æ
00E6
Ä
00C4
ì
00EC
Ö
00D6
Ü
00DC
É
00C9
ï
00EF
ß
00DF
 
 
  1. ^ In Unicode, the pound / lira symbol is unified as U+00A3 £ and whether this character has a single or double bar is merely considered a typographical variation of the same character. U+20A4 ₤ exists solely for compatibility with this character set, HP Roman-8, in which the singly barred glyph is coded as BB16 and the doubly barred glyph as AF16.[21]

Roman-8[edit]

HP Roman-8 is an 8-bit single byte character encoding that is mainly used on HP-UX[2] and many Hewlett-Packard[9][10] and PCL compatible printers. The name Roman-8 appeared in 1983,[1] but a precursor of the character set was already used by the HP 250 and HP 300 workstations since 1978/1979 as 8-bit Roman Extension.[15][16][17][18]

The original 1983/1984 version of Roman-8 still had some code points undefined.[3][7][8][4][22] In a 1985 revision code points 177 (Ý), 178 (ý), 242 (·), 243 (µ), 244 () and 245 (¾) were added and the appearance of code point 228 was changed from a stroked d (đ) to an eth (ð).[5][6][23][24] This final revision of the character set was also standardized as codepage 1051 by IBM in 1989.[25][26]

In contrast to the newer HP Roman-9, HP Roman-8 does not officially provide a code point for the euro sign. However, one source recommends to map it to code point 186 (as in Roman-9),[6] whereas another recommends code point 128 (0x80),[27] which lines up with where the character can end up in the modified HP Roman-8 character set as well.

The following table shows the latest 1985 definition of the HP Roman-8 character set (with some remarks regarding former definitions and alternative interpretations). Each character is shown with a potential Unicode equivalent and its decimal code, however, sources differ in the recommended translations for some of the codes even among definitions from Hewlett-Packard[2][24] and IBM.[25][26]

HP Roman-8
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
NUL
0000
SOH
0001
STX
0002
ETX
0003
EOT
0004
ENQ
0005
ACK
0006
BEL
0007
BS
0008
HT
0009
LF
000A
VT
000B
FF
000C
CR
000D
SO
000E
SI
000F
1_
16
DLE
0010
DC1
0011
DC2
0012
DC3
0013
DC4
0014
NAK
0015
SYN
0016
ETB
0017
CAN
0018
EM
0019
SUB
001A
ESC
001B
FS
001C
GS
001D
RS
001E
US
001F
2_
32
SP
0020
!
0021
"
0022
#
0023
$
0024
%
0025
&
0026
'
0027
(
0028
)
0029
*
002A
+
002B
,
002C
-
002D
.
002E
/
002F
3_
48
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
:
003A
;
003B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
?
003F
4_
64
@
0040
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
5_
80
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
[
005B
\
005C
]
005D
^
005E
_
005F
6_
96
`
0060
a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
7_
112
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E
DEL
007F
8_
128
 
0080
 
0081
BPH
0082
NBH
0083
 
0084
NEL
0085
SSA
0086
ESA
0087
HTS
0088
HTJ
0089
VTS
008A
PLD
008B
PLU
008C
RI
008D
SS2
008E
SS3
008F
9_
144
DCS
0090
PU1
0091
PU2
0092
STS
0093
CCH
0094
MW
0095
SPA
0096
EPA
0097
SOS
0098
 
0099
SCI
009A
CSI
009B
ST
009C
OSC
009D
PM
009E
APC
009F
A_
160
NBSP
00A0
À
00C0
Â
00C2
È
00C8
Ê
00CA
Ë
00CB
Î
00CE
Ï
00CF
´
00B4
ˋ/`
02CB/0060
ˆ
02C6
¨
00A8
˜
02DC
Ù
00D9
Û
00DB
[21]/£
20A4/00A3
B_
176
¯/
00AF/203E
Ý
00DD
ý
00FD
°/˚
00B0/02DA
Ç
00C7
ç
00E7
Ñ
00D1
ñ
00F1
¡
00A1
¿
00BF
¤
00A4
£
00A3
¥
00A5
§
00A7
ƒ
0192
¢
00A2
C_
192
â
00E2
ê
00EA
ô
00F4
û
00FB
á
00E1
é
00E9
ó
00F3
ú
00FA
à
00E0
è
00E8
ò
00F2
ù
00F9
ä
00E4
ë
00EB
ö
00F6
ü
00FC
D_
208
Å
00C5
î
00EE
Ø
00D8
Æ
00C6
å
00E5
í
00ED
ø
00F8
æ
00E6
Ä
00C4
ì
00EC
Ö
00D6
Ü
00DC
É
00C9
ï
00EF
ß/β
00DF/03B2
Ô
00D4
E_
224
Á
00C1
Ã
00C3
ã
00E3
Ð
00D0
ð/đ
00F0/0111
Í
00CD
Ì
00CC
Ó
00D3
Ò
00D2
Õ
00D5
õ
00F5
Š
0160
š
0161
Ú
00DA
Ÿ
0178
ÿ
00FF
F_
240
Þ
00DE
þ
00FE
·
00B7
µ/μ
00B5/03BC

00B6
¾
00BE
SHY/-
00AD/002D
¼
00BC
½
00BD
ª
00AA
º
00BA
«
00AB

25A0
»
00BB
±
00B1

 

Names[edit]

This character set has over the years acquired a number of different names, such as:

Modified Roman-8[edit]

In 1984, Hewlett-Packard introduced the HP 110 / HP Portable personal computer followed by the HP 110 Plus / HP Portable Plus in 1985. In "HP mode" they supported a derivation of the 1984 revision of 8-bit HP Roman-8 (still lacking the six additional characters at code points 177 to 178 and 242 to 245, and with code point 228 still resembling a stroked d (đ)), but with 32 additional graphical symbols at code points 128 to 159, including a rich set of box-drawing characters.[7][8]

Modified HP Roman-8 (1984), variant I (HP 110/110 Plus)[7][8]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0–6_ ...
7_
112
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E

2592
8_
128

25C4

25B2

25BC

25BA

255D

2557

2554

255A

2563

2569

2566

2560

2550

2551

256C

2666
9_
144

2191

2580

2584

2193

2518

2510

250C

2514

2524

2534

252C

251C

2500

2502

253C

2588
A_
160
(NBSP)
00A0
À
00C0
Â
00C2
È
00C8
Ê
00CA
Ë
00CB
Î
00CE
Ï
00CF
´
00B4
ˋ/`
02CB/0060
ˆ
02C6
¨
00A8
˜
02DC
Ù
00D9
Û
00DB
[21]/£
20A4/00A3
B–F_ ...

In 1986,[70] Hewlett-Packard introduced the HP-18C calculator and HP 82240A thermo printer,[70] which internally used an extended variant of the 1985 revision of the 8-bit HP Roman-8 character set (now with the six additional characters defined and with code point 228 already changed to an eth (ð)), but with the code points 127 (0x7F) and 160 (0xA0) as well as the control codes in the range 128 to 159 (0x80 to 0x9F) being replaced by additional displayable characters,[9][10][71] some of which were derived from the HP-41C/CV/CX's FOCAL character set and others incorporated into the revised FOCAL character set used by the HP-42S calculator, although at different code points. On the HP-28 series, characters above 147 (0x93) could not be displayed on the calculator, only be printed.[71][9][72]

There is no official code point definition for the euro sign in this modified character set. The HP 49/50 series of calculators use a different character set[73] based on ECMA-94 / ISO 8859-1 which includes the euro symbol. When printing to the HP 82240A printer via a user-defined translation vector defined in the PRTPAR variable,[74][75][76] the euro sign could be translated to f.e. code point 128 (0x80). Mapping the euro sign to code point 186 (0xBA) as in HP Roman-9 would be another choice.

Modified HP Roman-8 (1986), variant II (HP 82240A/B & HP-28C/S)[9][10][70]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
NUL
0000
SOH
0001
STX
0002
ETX
0003
EOT
0004
ENQ
0005
ACK
0006
BEL
0007
BS
0008
HT
0009
LF
000A
VT
000B
FF
000C
CR
000D
SO
000E
SI
000F
1_
16
DLE
0010
DC1
0011
DC2
0012
DC3
0013
DC4
0014
NAK
0015
SYN
0016
ETB
0017
CAN
0018
EM
0019
SUB
001A
ESC
001B
FS
001C
GS
001D
RS
001E
US
001F
2–6_ ...
7_
112
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E

2592
8_
128
NBSP[73]
00A0
÷
00F7
×
00D7

221A

222B
Σ
03A3

25B6
π
03C0

2202

2264

2265

2260
α
03B1

2192

2190
µ/μ
00B5/03BC
9_
144

240A
°
00B0
«
00AB
»
00BB
[nb 1]
22A6?

2081

2082
²
00B2
³
00B3

1D62

2C7C

2025

2071
ʲ
02B2?

1D4F?

207F
A_
160
/
2221/2220
À
00C0
Â
00C2
È
00C8
Ê
00CA
Ë
00CB
Î
00CE
Ï
00CF
´
00B4
ˋ/`
02CB/0060
ˆ
02C6
¨
00A8
˜
02DC
Ù
00D9
Û
00DB
[21]/£
20A4/00A3
B–F_ ...

Roman-9[edit]

HP Roman-9 (also known as HP Roman 9, hp-roman9, roman9 or R9) is a slight modification of the 8-bit HP Roman-8 character set where the general currency sign (¤) at code point 186 (0xBA) was replaced by the euro sign ().[77][78] It was introduced in early 1999.[11] As of 2017, HP Roman-9 still has no known code page number assigned to it.

HP Roman-9
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
B_
176
¯/
00AF/203E
Ý
00DD
ý
00FD
°/˚
00B0/02DA
Ç
00C7
ç
00E7
Ñ
00D1
ñ
00F1
¡
00A1
¿
00BF

20AC
£
00A3
¥
00A5
§
00A7
ƒ
0192
¢
00A2

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The glyph at code point 148 () in this variant of HP Roman-8 is called APPEND character in Hewlett-Packard terminology. In the HP-41C/CV/CX and HP-42S series of calculators, it is used to indicate that the following characters will be appended to the alpha register rather than replacing the existing contents of the register. However, these calculators use the FOCAL character set, where the glyph is located at code point 127.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Stone, Artie (1983-12-01). "Two for one printer program" (PDF). Computer News - For HP Field Personnel. Hewlett-Packard. 9 (3): 32. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  2. ^ a b c d "MPE XL Native Language Programmer's Guide" (PDF). Hewlett-Packard. p. figure A-2 in appendix A. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-13.
  3. ^ a b "ThinkJet Printer - The Personal Printer from Hewlett-Packard - Reference Section". Hewlett-Packard. October 1984. p. B-2. Retrieved 2016-10-18.
  4. ^ a b "ThinkJet Printer - The Personal Printer from Hewlett-Packard - Reference Section" (PDF). Hewlett-Packard. March 1987. pp. D-2, D-3, 32. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-21. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
  5. ^ a b Hewlett-Packard LaserJet Printer Family Soft Font Selection Guide (PDF). Hewlett-Packard. November 1986. HP-ID 26026-90924. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-08-17. Roman-8 & Roman Extension: The Roman-8 and Roman Extension characters reflect the 1985 updates: 1. Six additional characters added to former blank positions. Ýý·µ¾ 2. Appearance of the lowercase đ character changed to ð.
  6. ^ a b c d "Roman-8 Character Set Codes" (PDF). 2007-02-16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-10. Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  7. ^ a b c d Hewlett-Packard - Technical Reference Manual - Portable PLUS (1 ed.). Corvallis, OR, USA: Hewlett-Packard Company, Portable Computer Division. August 1985. 45559-90001. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
  8. ^ a b c d Hewlett-Packard - Technical Reference Manual - Portable PLUS (PDF) (2 ed.). Portable Computer Division, Corvallis, OR, USA: Hewlett-Packard Company. December 1986 [August 1985]. 45559-90006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
  9. ^ a b c d e HP 82240A Infrared Printer (PDF) (2 ed.). Corvallis, OR, USA: Hewlett Packard, Portable Computer Division. October 1986. HP reorder number 82240-90001 (82240-90008). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
  10. ^ a b c d HP 82240B Infrared Printer (1 ed.). Corvallis, OR, USA: Hewlett Packard. August 1989. pp. 17–18. HP reorder number 82240-90014. Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  11. ^ a b HP Deskjet 610C Benutzerhandbuch [HP Deskjet 610 User's Guide] (PDF) (in German) (1 ed.). Hewlett-Packard Company. March 1999. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
  12. ^ a b c "Owner's Manual - 2671A printer - 2671G graphics printer" (PDF). Hewlett-Packard. October 1982. pp. 3–7–3–12, 6–4–6–14. HP part number 02670-90015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-20. Retrieved 2016-08-20.
  13. ^ a b "Character Sets for HP Emulation". Attachmate. 2005-06-02. Technical Note 1179. Archived from the original on 2016-08-10. Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  14. ^ Terry, F. Duncan (November 1978). "Versatile 400-lpm Line Printer with a Friction-Free Mechanism that Assures Long Life" (PDF). Hewlett-Packard Journal. Hewlett-Packard: 20–22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-15. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  15. ^ a b Peery, Dennis L. (April 1979). "HP 250 BASIC: A Friendly, Interactive, Powerful System Language" (PDF). Hewlett-Packard Journal. Hewlett-Packard. 30 (4): 14–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  16. ^ a b Ha, Eric P. L.; Groff, James R. (June 1979). "The Integrated Display System and Terminal Access Method" (PDF). Hewlett-Packard Journal. Hewlett-Packard. 30 (6): 6–9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  17. ^ a b Knoll, Alfred F.; Marschke, Norman D. (July 1979). "An Innovative Programming and Operating Console" (PDF). Hewlett-Packard Journal. Hewlett-Packard. 30 (7): 13–17. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  18. ^ a b Davis, Steve (1979-09-01). "European 2631A Users Beware!" (PDF). Computer Systems Newsletter - for HP Field Personnel. Hewlett-Packard. 4 (20): 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-08-17. 009 - Roman Extension Set […] option 009 gives all the commonly used European characters a unique code. When this "Roman Extension" set is used in conjunction with the standard ASCII character set, the end result is a 256 character set represented by 8-bit code. The use of shift-in and shift-out characters is not required, since decimal codes 0 through 127 automatically access USASCII while codes 128 through 255 access the European characters. It is important to understand the differences between the two techniques and to know which technique is supported on a given system. The HP 250 and HP 300 support the 8-bit code technique, consequently, 2631A option 009 must be ordered to provide local language printing on these two systems. All other HP computer systems and the 264X terminals support the 7-bit code, shift-in/shift-out method.
  19. ^ "Code page 1050" (PDF). IBM. 2014-04-16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-10. Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  20. ^ https://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U2400.pdf
  21. ^ a b c d Allen, Julie D., ed. (August 2015) [1991]. "The Unicode Standard - Version 8.0 - Core Specification - Chapter 22.1. Currency Symbols" (PDF). Mountain View, CA, USA: Unicode, Inc. pp. 751–752. ISBN 978-1-936213-10-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-06. Retrieved 2016-12-06. […] Currency Symbols: U+20A0–U+20CF […] Lira Sign. A separate currency sign U+20A4 LIRA SIGN is encoded for compatibility with the HP Roman-8 character set, which is still widely implemented in printers. In general, U+00A3 POUND SIGN may be used for both the various currencies known as pound (or punt) and the currencies known as lira. […]
  22. ^ JPC ROM - Quick Reference Guide (PDF). D. PPC Paris. 1988. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-10-18. Retrieved 2016-10-18.
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    This file has remained essentially unchanged since it was imported from cdctables.zip in 1995; only a few flags have been changed:
    In July 2000 some characters were marked as mapping only from Unicode, but not back:
    ` \\xA9 # SD130100 → ` \\xA9 # SD130100 |1
    £ \\xAF # SC020001 → £ \\xAF # SC020001 |1
    ▒ \\x7F # SF150000 → ▒ \\x7F # SF150000 |1
    Fullwidth ! \x21 # SP020000 → Fullwidth ! \x21 # SP020000 |1
    Fullwidth " \x22 # SP040000 → Fullwidth " \x22 # SP040000 |1
    ...
    Fullwidth } \x7D # SM140000 → Fullwidth } \x7D # SM140000 |1
    Fullwidth ~ \x7E # SD190000 → Fullwidth ~ \x7E # SD190000 |1
    Fullwidth ■ \xFC # SM470000 → Fullwidth ■ \xFC # SM470000 |1
    These are all cases where multiple characters map to the same byte.
    In November 2000 some characters were marked as mapping only to Unicode, but not back:
    - \xF6 |0 → - \xF6 |3
    ` \xA9 |1 → ` \xA9 |3
    £ \xAF |1 → £ \xAF |3
    These are all cases where multiple bytes map to the same character.
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