Hinduism and Sikhism

From Deep web, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hinduism and Sikhism are both Dharmic religions that originated in the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is an older religion, while Sikhism was founded in the 15th-century by Guru Nanak.[1][2]

Both religions share many philosophical concepts such as Karma, Dharma, Mukti, Maya and Saṃsāra.[3][4] In the days of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh community came to the defence of Hindus who were being forcibly converted to Islam.[5][6][7]

History of similarities and differences[edit]

Most scholars believe Hinduism started somewhere between 2300 B.C. and 1500 B.C. in the Indus Valley, near modern-day Pakistan. But many Hindus argue that their faith is timeless and has always existed. Unlike other religions, Hinduism has no one founder but is instead a fusion of various beliefs.[8]

Scholars state that the origins of Sikhism were influenced by the nirgun (“without form”) and not sagun (“with form”) conception of God of the Bhakti movement in medieval India.[1][9] The roots of Sikhism can be traced to the Sants of northern India,[1] whose ideology grew to become the Bhakti movement.[1][10] Furthermore, "Indic mythology permeates the Sikh Sacred canon, the Guru Granth Sahib and adds delicate nuance and substance to the sacred symbolic universe of the Sikhs of today and of their past ancestors".[11]


Ik Onkar, iconically represented as in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib (although sometimes spelt out in full as ਓਅੰਕਾਰ) is the iconographic statement in Sikhism that is 'there is one God'.[12][13] The phrase is an expression of monotheistic unity of God.[14]

Some Hindus think Onkar in () Sikhism is related to Om () of Hinduism.[14] Some Sikhs disagree that Ik Onkar is same as Om.[14] Onkar is, states Wazir Singh, a "variation of Om (Aum) of the ancient Indian scriptures (with a slight change in its orthography), implying the seed-force that evolves as the universe".[15] In Ek Onkar, explains Gulati, "Ek" means One, and Onkar is "equivalent of the Hindu "Om" (Aum)".[16]

However, both of them are different as far as Sikhs believe because Oankar refers to the total primary lord God.

Oankar One God, True Name, Creator Being, No Fear, No Hatred, Timeless Form, Beyond Birth, Self-Existent, By Guru's Grace.
Raaj Gauri Sukhmani

"Ik Onkar” is in the opening verses of Guru Nanak’s Jap Ji (Morning Prayer), along with countless other references to Ekankar (Ik Onkar ੴ, ਇਕ ਓਅੰਕਾਰ) found in the Adi Granth/Sikh Scriptures. Ik Onkar is also the first phrase in the Mool Mantra, the opening phrase of Guru Nanak’s Jap Ji (Morning Prayer) in the Guru Granth (Sikh Scriptures or Adi Granth).

Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji[edit]

During the Mughal Empire period, the Sikh and Hindu traditions believe that Sikhs helped protect Hindus from Islamic persecution, and this caused martyrdom of their Guru.[19] The Sikh historians, for example, record that the Sikh movement was rapidly growing in northwest India, and Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was openly encouraging Sikhs to, "be fearless in their pursuit of just society: he who holds none in fear, nor is afraid of anyone, is acknowledged as a man of true wisdom", a statement recorded in Adi Granth 1427.[20][21][22] While Guru Tegh Bahadur influence was rising, Aurangzeb had imposed Islamic laws, demolished Hindu schools and temples, and enforced new taxes on non-Muslims.[21][23][24]

According to records written by his son Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the Guru had resisted persecution, adopted and promised to protect Kashmiri Hindus.[20][22] The Guru was summoned to Delhi by Aurangzeb on a pretext, but when he arrived with his colleagues, he was offered, "to abandon his faith, and convert to Islam".[20][22] Guru Tegh Bahadur and his colleagues refused, he and his associates were arrested, tortured for many weeks.[22][25][26] The Guru himself was beheaded in public.[21][27][28]


Monotheism versus pluralism[edit]

Sikhism is a monotheistic religion; Sikhs believe there is only one God, who has infinite qualities and names. According to Eleanor Nesbitt, English renderings of Sikhism as a monotheistic religion "tend misleadingly to reinforce a Semitic understanding of monotheism, rather than Guru Nanak's mystical awareness of the one that is expressed through the many. However, what is not in doubt is the emphasis on 'one'".[29]

Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, agnosticism, deism and atheism.[30]

Caste System[edit]

Hinduism splits people into 4 groups,[31] namely Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishyas and Shudras. But the terms varna (theoretical classification based on occupation) and jāti (caste) are two distinct concepts. Jāti (community) refers to the thousands of endogamous groups prevalent across the subcontinent. A jati may be divided into exogamous groups based on the same gotras. The classical authors scarcely speak of anything other than the varnas; even Indologists sometimes confuse the two.

Sikhism treats all people equally and founds systems such as Langar and Pangat[32] to help play this out in daily life.[33] Once a person initiates into the Khalsa (Sikh Baptism) it is said that they no longer belong to any caste.[34] This, however, does not imply that the practice of caste hierarchy is absent within the adherents of Sikhism. Caste hierarchy is generally a social reality within the Indian subcontinent regardless of religious affiliation.


Sikhs believe in naam jap (meditation), and focus on listening to the hymns from Guru Granth Sahib, the central religious scripture of Sikh faith. The Guru is the focal point of worship in any Sikh Gurdwara, and the worshippers bow before it. Guru Granth Sahib is installed every morning and put to bed at night in many Gurdwaras.[35]

Different schools of Hinduism have different theories about rituals[36][37] and on salvation (moksha).[38] However, they are primarily based around Puja (devotional worship to a personal deity, often using an idol or Murthi), and Yajna (ritual non-human/non-animal sacrifice).

Idol worship[edit]

Sikhs shun idol worship as a part of their faith.[39]

Hindus accept the worship facilitated with images or murtis (idols), particularly in Agamic traditions, such as Vaishnavism and Shaivism.[40] Some scholars state it is incorrect to state that all Hindus worship idols, and more correct to state that for some the idol is a means to focus their thoughts, for some idol is a manifestation of spirituality that is everywhere, and for some even a linga, a sunrise or a river or a flower serves the same purpose.[41][42] Hindu temples are called Mandirs, while Sikh temples are called Gurdwaras. However, the most famous Sikh shrine is called Harmandir Sahib(The Golden Temple)


Hindus believe that the Vedas texts are of divine origin and the term śruti ("what is heard") refers to this. The Hindu belief that the cosmos is eternal; was not created and will always exist, also applies to the Hindu view of the Vedas. The Vedas is the eternal divine knowledge that is "heard" by humans and are apauruṣeya, "not of human agency". The Vedas is integrated into the life of Hindus, though many Hindus have never read it. Vedic mantras are recited at Hindu prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions.

Sikhism accepts Guru Granth Sahib Ji as their scripture and accepts only those Sakhis and religious books that are in accord with Guru Granth Sahib Ji. This is the instruction of the Guru.

Only reading the books and scriptures, O Siblings of Destiny; they do not relieve the anxiety of the heart.

— Guru Granth Sahib, P727-7[43]

One may read all the books of the Vedas, the Bible, the Simritees and the Shaastras, but they will not bring liberation.

— Guru Granth Sahib, P747-18[44]


The Sikh concept of salvation is called mukti (moksha) referring to spiritual liberation.[45] It is described in Sikhism as the state that breaks the cycle of rebirths.[45] Mukti is obtained according to Sikhism, states Singha, through "God's grace".[46] In the teachings of the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib, the devotion to God is viewed as more important than the desire for Mukti.[46]

I desire neither worldly power nor liberation. I desire nothing but seeing the Lord.
Brahma, Shiva, the Siddhas, the silent sages and Indra - I seek only the Blessed Vision of my Lord and Master's Darshan.
I have come, helpless, to Your Door, O Lord Master; I am exhausted - I seek the Sanctuary of the Saints.
Says Nanak, I have met my Enticing Lord God; my mind is cooled and soothed - it blossoms forth in joy.

Sikhism recommends Naam Simran as the way to mukti, which is meditating.[45][46]

The six major orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy offer diverse soteriological views on moksha, including whether moksha can be achieved in this life, or after this life.[48] The Nyaya, Vaisesika and Mimamsa schools of Hinduism consider moksha as possible only after death.[48][49] Samkhya and Yoga schools consider moksha as possible in this life. In Vedanta school, the Advaita sub-school concludes moksha is possible in this life.[48] The Dvaita and Visistadvaita sub-schools of Vedanta tradition, highlighted by many poet-saints of the Bhakti movement, believe that moksha is a continuous event, one assisted by loving devotion to God, that extends from this life to post-mortem. Beyond these six orthodox schools, some heterodox schools of Hindu tradition, such as Carvaka, deny there is a soul or after life moksha.[50]

Dietary requirements[edit]

Hinduism does not explicitly prohibit eating meat, but it does strongly recommend Ahimsa – the concept of non-violence against all life forms including animals.[51][52] As a consequence, many Hindus prefer vegetarian or lacto-vegetarian lifestyle, and methods of food production that is in harmony with nature and compassionate, respectful of other life forms as well as nature.[51]

The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism[53] or the consumption of meat,[53][54] but rather leave the decision of diet to the individual. Sikh sects and groups that have a "Vashnavite" influence (AKJ, GNNSJ, 3HO, Namdhari's etc.) tend to be vegetarians.[53][54] Other Sikhs eat meat that has been prepared by the Jhatka method (meat prepared by sudden death of the animal), and consider only that meat as expressly forbidden that is ritually slaughtered like Kosher or Halal (Kutha meat, the meat of animals prepared by slowly bleeding it to death). HS Singha explains the Jhatka meat requirement to have support in the Hindu tradition as well, as follows,

According to the ancient Aryan Hindu tradition, only such meat as is obtained from an animal which is killed with one stroke of the weapon causing instantaneous death is fit for human consumption. However, with the coming of Islam into India and the Muslim political hegemony, it became a state policy not to permit slaughter of animals for food, in any other manner, except as laid down in the Quran - the halal meat prepared by severing the main blood artery of the throat of the animal while reciting verses from the Quran. Guru Gobind Singh took a rather serious view of this aspect of the whole matter. He, therefore, while permitting flesh to be taken as food repudiated the whole theory of this expiatory sacrifice and the right of ruling Muslims to impose it on the non-Muslims. Accordingly, he made jhatka meat obligatory for those Sikhs who may be interested in taking meat as a part of their food.

— HS Singha, Sikhism, A Complete Introduction[55]


  • Both Hindus and Sikh are cremated after death[56]
  • Both believe in karma[57]
  • Both Sikhs and Hindus revere the concept of a Guru.[58]
  • Hindus and Sikhs use the word Atma or atman to describe the "Self, Soul".[59]

In the Hindu and Sikh traditions, there is a distinction between religion and culture, and ethical decisions are grounded in both religious beliefs and cultural values. Both Hindu and Sikh ethics are primarily duty based. Traditional teachings deal with the duties of individuals and families to maintain a lifestyle conducive to physical, mental and spiritual health. These traditions share a culture and world view that includes ideas of karma and rebirth, collective versus individual identity, and a strong emphasis on spiritual purity.[1]

The notion of dharma, karma, moksha are very important for both Hindus and Sikhs. Unlike the linear view of life, death, heaven or hell taken in Abrahamic religions, for Hindus and Sikhs believe in the concept of Saṃsāra, that is life, birth and death are repeated, for each soul, in a cycle until one reaches mukti or moksha.[60][61]

Culture and intermarriage[edit]

There is an organic relation of Sikhs to Hindus, states Zaehner, both in religious thought and their communities, and virtually all Sikhs' ancestors were Hindus.[62] Some Hindu groups, like the BJP and related nationalist organizations, view Sikhism as a tradition within Hinduism along with other Dharmic faiths (such as some Hindus referring to Sikhs as Keshdhari Hindus),[63] even though the Sikh faith is a distinct religion.[62] Historically, Sikhs were seen as the protectors of Hindus, among others, and were even considered by some right-wing Hindu political organizations like the RSS as the "sword arm" of Hinduism.[64][65] This status as protectors of Hindus was strong enough that Punjabi Hindus would often raise their eldest son as a Sikh.[64] Most Sikhs are ethnically Punjabis, whereas Hindus belong to a variety of ethnic groups worldwide (including Punjabis).

Marriages between Sikhs and Hindus, particularly among Khatris,[62] are frequent.[62] Dogra states that there has always been inter-marriage between the Hindu and the Sikh communities.[66] Charing and Cole state that "Sikhism originated and developed within Hinduism. Hindus and Sikhs, in initial years of Sikhism, used to have what is termed as Roti Beti di Sanjh; that is they eat together and intermarry".[67] William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi state that for some Sikhs, intermarriage between Hindus and Sikhs of same community was preferable than other communities.[68]

Sikh scriptures are venerated by certain Hindu communities,[64] often by syncretic sects.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d McLeod, William H. (2014). "Sikhism: History and Doctrine". britannica.com. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 January 2019. Sikhs claim that their tradition has always been separate from Hinduism. Nevertheless, many Western scholars argue that in its earliest stage Sikhism was a movement within the Hindu tradition; Nanak, they point out, was raised a Hindu and eventually belonged to the Sant tradition of northern India, a movement associated with the great poet and mystic Kabir (1440–1518). The Sants, most of whom were poor, dispossessed, and illiterate, composed hymns of great beauty expressing their experience of the divine, which they saw in all things. Their tradition drew heavily on the Vaishnava bhakti (the devotional movement within the Hindu tradition that worships the god Vishnu), though there were important differences between the two. Like the followers of bhakti, the Sants believed that devotion to God is essential to liberation from the cycle of rebirth in which all human beings are trapped; unlike the followers of bhakti, however, the Sants maintained that God is nirgun (“without form”) and not sagun (“with form”). For the Sants, God can be neither incarnated nor represented in concrete terms.
  2. ^ "Sikh world history". BBC. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2019. Sikhism was born in the Punjab area of South Asia, which now falls into the present day states of India and Pakistan. The main religions of the area at the time were Hinduism and Islam. The Sikh faith began around 1500 CE, when Guru Nanak began teaching a faith that was quite distinct from Hinduism and Islam. Nine Gurus followed Nanak and developed the Sikh faith and community over the next centuries.
  3. ^ Sikhism and death BBC
  4. ^ Reincarnation and Sikhism (religion), Encyclopædia Britannica
  5. ^ Stephen Neill (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-521-54885-4.;
    Pashaura Singh and Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 236–245, 444–446. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  6. ^ Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7.
  7. ^ Singh, Harbans. Guru Nanak and origins of the Sikh faith. Asia Publication House. p. 11.
  8. ^ History of Hinduism, BBC
  9. ^ David Lorenzen (1995), Bhakti Religion in North India: Community Identity and Political Action, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791420256, pp. 1-2, Quote: "Historically, Sikh religion derives from this nirguni current of Bhakti religion".
  10. ^ Louis Fenech (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 35, Quote: "Technically this would place the Sikh community's origins at a much further remove than 1469, perhaps to the dawning of the Sant movement, which possesses clear affinities to Guru Nanak's thought sometime in the tenth century. The predominant ideology of the Sant parampara in turn corresponds in many respects to the much wider devotional Bhakti tradition in northern India."
  11. ^ Louis Fenech (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 36, Quote: "Few Sikhs would mention these Indic texts and ideologies in the same breadth as the Sikh tradition, let alone trace elements of their tradition to this chronological and ideological point, despite the fact that the Indic mythology permeates the Sikh sacred canon, the Guru Granth Sahib and the secondary canon, the Dasam Granth (Rinehart 2011), and adds delicate nuance and substance to the sacred symbolic universe of the Sikhs of today and of their past ancestors."
  12. ^ Singh, Wazir (1969). Aspects of Guru Nanak's philosophy. Lahore Book Shop. p. 20. Retrieved 2015-09-17. the 'a,' 'u,' and 'm' of aum have also been explained as signifying the three principles of creation, sustenance and annihilation. ... aumkār in relation to existence implies plurality, ... but its substitute Ekonkar definitely implies singularity in spite of the seeming multiplicity of existence. ...
  13. ^ Singh, Khushwant (2002). "The Sikhs". In Kitagawa, Joseph Mitsuo (ed.). The religious traditions of Asia: religion, history, and culture. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 114. ISBN 0-7007-1762-5.
  14. ^ a b c Doniger, Wendy (1999). Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions. Merriam-Webster. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
  15. ^ Wazir Singh (1969), Guru Nanak's philosophy, Journal of Religious Studies, Vol. 1, Issue 1, page 56
  16. ^ Mahinder Gulati (2008), Comparative Religious And Philosophies : Anthropomorphlsm And Divinity, Atlantic, ISBN 978-8126909025, pages 284-285; Quote: "While Ek literally means One, Onkar is the equivalent of the Hindu "Om" (Aum), the one syllable sound representing the holy trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva - the God in His entirety."
  17. ^ Guru Granth Sahib P281
  18. ^ Guru Granth Sahib P282
  19. ^ Mir, Farina (2010). The social space of language vernacular culture in British colonial Punjab. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 207–237. ISBN 978-0-520-26269-0.
  20. ^ a b c Seiple, Chris (2013). The Routledge handbook of religion and security. New York: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-66744-9.
  21. ^ a b c Pashaura Singh and Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 236–237. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  22. ^ a b c d Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History of Sikh gurus retold. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 653–691. ISBN 978-81-269-0858-5.
  23. ^ Guru Tegh Bahadur BBC Religions (2009)
  24. ^ Gobind Singh (Translated by Navtej Sarna) (2011). Zafarnama. Penguin Books. p. xviii-xix. ISBN 978-0-670-08556-9.
  25. ^ William Irvine (2012). Later Mughals. Harvard Press. ISBN 9781290917766.
  26. ^ Siṅgha, Kirapāla (2006). Select documents on Partition of Punjab-1947. National Book. p. 234. ISBN 978-81-7116-445-5.
  27. ^ SS Kapoor. The Sloaks of Guru Tegh Bahadur & The Facts About the Text of Ragamala. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-81-7010-371-4.
  28. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History of Sikh gurus retold. Atlantic Publishers. p. 690. ISBN 978-81-269-0858-5.
  29. ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005). Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.
  30. ^ Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, page 8; Quote: "(...) one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu."
  31. ^ Dumont, Louis (1980). Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications. p. 437. ISBN 9780226169637.
  32. ^ Rait, S. K. (2005). Sikh Women in England: Their Religious and Cultural Beliefs and Social Practices. Trentham Books. p. 24. ISBN 9781858563534.
  33. ^ Dhillon, Dalbir (1988). Sikhism Origin and Development. New Delhi: Atlantic. p. 203.
  34. ^ Saran, Gursaran (2013). The Wheel Eternaln. Pittsburgh: Dorrance Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 9781434969002.
  35. ^ William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, page 44
  36. ^ [a] Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Vol. III, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803107, pages 16-18, 220; [b] Basant Pradhan (2014), Yoga and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, Springer Academic, ISBN 978-3319091044, page 13 see A.4
  37. ^ Christian Novetzke (2007), Bhakti and Its Public, International Journal of Hindu Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3, page 255-272
  38. ^ Andrew Fort (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791439043
  39. ^ Pashaura Singh (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 131
  40. ^ V Bharne and K Krusche (2012), Rediscovering the Hindu Temple: The Sacred Architecture and Urbanism of India, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, ISBN 978-1443841375, pages 37-42
  41. ^ Jeaneane Fowler (1996), Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723608, pages 41-43
  42. ^ Swarup Chandra (1998), Encyclopaedia of Hindu Gods and Goddesses, Swarup & Sons, ISBN 978-8176250399, page 149
  43. ^ Guru Granth Sahib P727-7
  44. ^ Guru Granth Sahib P747-18
  45. ^ a b c Geoff Teece (2004), Sikhism: Religion in focus, ISBN 978-1-58340-469-0, page 17
  46. ^ a b c d HS Singha (2009),Sikhism: A Complete Introduction, Hemkunt Press, ISBN 978-8170102458, pages 53-54
  47. ^ Guru Granth Sahib P534, 2.3.29
  48. ^ a b c A. Sharma (2000), Classical Hindu Thought: An Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195644418, pp 117
  49. ^ Note: Each school has a different meaning for Moksha. For example, Mimamsa school considers moksha as release into svarga (heaven), it does not recognize samsara; while Nyaya school considers moksha as linked to samsara and a release from it; See: The Purva-Mimamsa Sutra of Jaimini, Transl: M.L. Sandal (1923), Chapter II, Pada I and Chapter VI, Pada I through VIII; Also see Klaus Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism, 3rd Edition, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, Chapter 26
  50. ^ Miller, A. T. (2013), A review of "An Introduction to Indian Philosophy: Perspectives on Reality, Knowledge, and Freedom", Religion, 43(1), pages 119-123
  51. ^ a b Susan Dudek (2013), Nutrition Essentials for Nursing Practice, Wolters Kluwer Health, ISBN 978-1451186123, page 251
  52. ^ Angela Wood (1998), Movement and Change, Nelson Thornes, ISBN 978-0174370673, page 80
  53. ^ a b c A History of the Sikh People by Dr. Gopal Singh, World Sikh University Press, Delhi ISBN 9788170231394 However, it is strange that nowadays in the Community-Kitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru's Kitchen (or, Guru-ka-langar) meat-dishes are not served at all. May be, it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive, or not easy to keep for long. Or, perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off.
  54. ^ a b Guru Granth Sahib, An Analytical Study by Surindar Singh Kohli, Singh Bros. Amritsar ISBN 8172050607 The ideas of devotion and service in Vaishnavism have been accepted by Adi Granth, but the insistence of Vaishnavas on vegetarian diet has been rejected.
  55. ^ HS Singha (2009), Sikhism: A Complete Introduction, Hemkunt Press, ISBN 978-8170102458, pages 81-82
  56. ^ Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. p. 470. ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5.
  57. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.
  58. ^ Joel Mlecko (1982), The Guru in Hindu Tradition, Numen, Volume 29, Fasc. 1, pages 33-61
  59. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 24, 32, 138. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.
  60. ^ W.O. Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (2016). Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. Springer. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-1-349-23049-5.
  61. ^ Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-4411-5366-1.
  62. ^ a b c d Robert Zaehner (1997), Encyclopedia of the World's Religions, Barnes & Noble Publishing, ISBN 978-0760707128, page 409
  63. ^ Mukul Kesavan (14 September 2015). "Their better selves - Vegetarianism and virtue". The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  64. ^ a b c Ved Mehta (1996). Rajiv Gandhi and Rama's Kingdom (illustrated, revised ed.). Yale University Press. p. 65. ISBN 9780300068580.
  65. ^ Ratan Sharda: RSS 360 °: Demystifying Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh|date=2018|publisher=Bloomsbury Publishing|9789386950406|page=290|
  66. ^ R. C. Dogra & Urmila Dogra: Hindu and Sikh wedding ceremonies pub. 2000. Star Publications. ISBN 9788176500289.
  67. ^ Douglas Charing and William Owen Cole: Six world faiths pub. 2004, page 309. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780826476838.
  68. ^ William Owen Cole, Piara Singh Sambhi: Sikhism and Christianity: a comparative study, Volume 1993, Part 2, pub. 1993. Macmillan. Page 22. ISBN 9780333541067.

Cited sources[edit]

  • Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge, xiii-xiv. ISBN 0-415-26604-1.
  • Rosetta William, Sikh Gurus, Har-Anand Publications PVT Ltd (India), 2002, First edition, ISBN 8124107165
  • Professor Kartar Singh, Biography of Guru Nanak, Hemkunt Press (India), 1995, Sixth edition, ISBN 81-7010-162-X

Further reading[edit]

  • K.P. Agrawala: Adi Shrî Gurû Granth Sâhib kî Mahimâ (Hindi: "The greatness of the original sacred Guru scripture")
  • Elst, Koenraad: Who is a Hindu?, 2001. ISBN 81-85990-74-3 [2]
  • Rajendra Singh Nirala: Ham Hindu Hain, 1989. Ham Hindu Kyon, 1990. Delhi: Voice of India.
  • E. Trumpp. Adi Granth or the Holy Scripture of the Sikhs, Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi 1970.
  • McLeod, W.H.:(ed.) Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism. Manchester University Press, Manchester 1984., -: Who Is a Sikh? The Problem of Sikh Identity. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1989.
  • Harjot Oberoi, The Construction of Religious Boundaries : Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition, University Of Chicago Press 1994.
  • Rajendra Singh: Sikkha Itihâsa mein Râma Janmabhûmi.
  • Swarup, Ram: Hindu-Sikh Relationship. Voice of India, Delhi 1985. -: Whither Sikhism? Voice of India, Delhi 1991.
  • Talib, Gurbachan (1950). Muslim League Attack on Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab 1947. India: Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee.Online 1 Online 2 Online 3 (A free copy of this book can be read from any 3 of the included "Online Sources" of this free "Online Book")