Hinduism in Japan
|Hinduism by country|
Although Hinduism is a little-practiced religion in Japan, it has still had a significant, but indirect role in the formation of Japanese culture. This is mostly because many Buddhist beliefs and traditions (which share a common Dharmic root with Hinduism) spread to Japan from China via Korean peninsula in the 6th Century. One indication of this is the Japanese "Seven Gods of Fortune", of which four originated as Hindu deities: Benzaitensama (Sarasvati), Bishamon (Vaiśravaṇa or Kubera), Daikokuten (Mahākāla/Shiva), and Kichijōten (Lakshmi). Along with Benzaitennyo/Sarasvati and Kisshoutennyo/Laxmi and completing the nipponization of the three Hindu Tridevi goddesses, the Hindu goddess Mahakali is nipponized as the Japanese goddess Daikokutennyo (大黒天女), though she is only counted among Japan's Seven Luck Deities when she is regarded as the feminine manifestation of her male counterpart Daikokuten (大黒天).
Benzaiten arrived in Japan during the 6th through 8th centuries, mainly via the Chinese translations of the Sutra of Golden Light (金光明経), which has a section devoted to her. She is also mentioned in the Lotus Sutra. In Japan, the lokapālas take the Buddhist form of the Four Heavenly Kings (四天王). The Sutra of Golden Light became one of the most important sutras in Japan because of its fundamental message, which teaches that the Four Heavenly Kings protect the ruler who governs his country in the proper manner. The Hindu god of death, Yama, is known in his Buddhist form as Enma. Garuda, the mount (vahana) of Vishnu, is known as the Karura (迦楼羅), an enormous, fire-breathing creature in Japan. It has the body of a human and the face or beak of an eagle. Tennin originated from the apsaras. The Hindu Ganesha (see Kangiten) is displayed more than Buddha in a temple in Futako Tamagawa, Tokyo. Other examples of Hindu influence on Japan include the belief of "six schools" or "six doctrines" as well as use of Yoga and pagodas. Many of the facets of Hindu culture which have influenced Japan have also influenced Chinese culture.
Hinduism is practised mainly by the Indian migrants. As of 2016, there are 30,048 Indians in Japan. Most of them are Hindus. Hindu gods are still revered by many Japanese particularly in Shingon Buddhism. There are few Hindu temples in Japan as follows:
- Shirdi Sai Baba Tokyo Temple
- ISKCON New Gaya
- Benzaitensama Shrine (Saraswati Shrine)
- Ganesha Temple, Asakusa
- "Butsuzōzui (Illustrated Compendium of Buddhist Images)" (digital photos) (in Japanese). Ehime University Library. 1796. p. (059.jpg).
- Chaudhuri, Saroj Kumar. Hindu Gods and Goddesses in Japan. (New Delhi, 2003) ISBN 81-7936-009-1.
- "Japan wants to encourage studies of Hindu gods" Satyen Mohapatra[dead link]
- Did you know that at least 20 Hindu deities are regularly worshiped in Japan? Hindu gods forgotten in India revered in Japan, By Krishnendu Bandyopadhyay, TNN, Jan 11, 2016, Times of India
- Hare Krishna temple in Japan
- Hindus in Japan
- Vedanta Society of Japan
- Ancient Japanese carving of Lord Krishna Playing a Flute, Nara, Japan
- A Tribute to Hinduism: India and China
- A Tribute to Hinduism: Suvarnabhumi, Greater India
- Hinduism in Japan
- The "Six Schools"
- Japan File: India
- Nippon Shakti
- Hindu Influence on Japan
- Japan's Hindu linkages still alive