Innocence of Muslims
Innocence of Muslims is an anti-Islamic short film that was written and produced by Nakoula Basseley Nakoula. Two versions of the 14-minute video were uploaded to YouTube in July 2012, under the titles The Real Life of Muhammad and Muhammad Movie Trailer. Videos dubbed in Arabic were uploaded during early September 2012. Anti-Islamic content had been added in post-production by dubbing, without the actors' knowledge.
What was perceived as denigration of the Islamic prophet Muhammad resulted in demonstrations and violent protests against the video to break out on September 11 in Egypt and spread to other Arab and Muslim nations and to some western countries. The protests led to hundreds of injuries and over 50 deaths. Fatwas calling for the harm of the video's participants were issued and Pakistani government minister Bashir Ahmad Bilour offered a bounty for the killing of Nakoula, the producer. The film has sparked debates about freedom of speech and Internet censorship.
Plot and description
The video titled "The Real Life of Muhammad", uploaded on July 1, 2012, has a running time of 13:03 in 480p format. The video "Muhammad Movie Trailer" was uploaded on July 2, 2012, with a running time of 13:51 in 1080p format. They are similar in content.
The trailer starts with a scene portraying the reportedly increasing persecution of Copts and poor human rights in recent-day Egypt, with rise in church-burnings, growing religious intolerance and sectarian violence that has been seen against the 10% population of Egypt that are Copts, and complaints that authorities have failed to protect this population. The New York Times stated: "The trailer opens with scenes of Egyptian security forces standing idle as Muslims pillage and burn the homes of Egyptian Christians. Then it cuts to cartoonish scenes depicting the Prophet Muhammad as a child of uncertain parentage, a buffoon, a womanizer, a homosexual, a child molester, and a greedy, bloodthirsty thug."
Most references to Islam have been overdubbed, added after the filming over the original spoken lines. The film's 80 cast and crew members have disavowed the film: "The entire cast and crew are extremely upset and feel taken advantage of by the producer. ... We are deeply saddened by the tragedies that have occurred."
The script was written about life in Egypt 2,000 years ago and was titled Desert Warrior. It was a story about a character called "Master George". Several actors were brought in to overdub lines. They were directed to say specific words, such as "Muhammad". Hiding from the attack, a doctor and his family take shelter in their home where the doctor takes up a pen and begins writing on a whiteboard: "Man + X = BT". "BT" is overdubbed as "Islamic terrorist". The young woman asks what "X" is. He tells her that she needs to discover that for herself.
The video continues with scenes set in the past. Some scenes depict the main character referred to in overdubbing as "Muhammad". In one scene, the "Muhammad" character's wife, "Khadija", suggests mixing parts of the Torah and the New Testament. In another scene, the Muhammad is seen speaking to the donkey known as Ya'fur in Islamic tradition.
A Vanity Fair article described the video as "Exceptionally amateurish, with disjointed dialogue, jumpy editing, and performances that would have looked melodramatic even in a silent movie, the clip is clearly designed to offend Muslims, portraying Mohammed as a bloodthirsty murderer and Lothario and pedophile with omnidirectional sexual appetites."
Reuters said "it portrays Mohammad as a fool, a philanderer and a religious fake and in one clip posted on YouTube, he was shown in an apparent sexual act with a woman. For many Muslims it is blasphemous even to show a depiction of the Prophet."
Filmmaker and promoters
The movie was written and produced by Nakoula Basseley Nakoula, using the pseudonym of "Sam Bacile". Nakoula claimed that he was creating an epic, two-hour film but no such film has come to light.
According to a consultant on the project, the videos are "trailers" from a full-length film that was shown only once, to an audience of fewer than ten people, at a rented theater in Hollywood, California. Posters advertising the film used the title Innocence of Bin Laden. The film's original working title was Desert Warrior, and it told the story of "tribal battles prompted by the arrival of a comet on Earth". On September 27, 2012, U.S. federal authorities stated Nakoula was arrested in Los Angeles for allegedly violating terms of his probation. Prosecutors stated that some of the violations included making false statements regarding his role in the film and his use of the alias "Sam Bacile". On November 7, 2012, Nakoula pleaded guilty to four of the charges against him and was sentenced to one year in prison and four years of supervised release.
In July 2011, Nakoula started casting actors for Desert Warrior, the working title at that time. The independent film was directed by a person first identified in casting calls as Alan Roberts, whose original cut and filmed dialog and script did not include references to Muhammad or Islam. According to the casting.backstage.com announcement, it was to be "an HD 24P historical Arabian Desert adventure film" with "Sam Bassiel" as producer with shooting to start in August 2011. The lead was to be "George: male, 20–40, a strong leader, romantic, tyrant, a killer with no remorse, accent".
American non-profit Media for Christ obtained film permits to shoot the movie in August 2011, and Nakoula provided his home as a set and paid the actors, according to government officials and those involved in the production. Joseph Nassralla Abdelmasih, president of Media for Christ, claimed that the company's name was used without his knowledge. He also stated that the film was edited afterwards without Media's involvement. Steve Klein, an anti-Muslim activist, claimed to be the spokesman for the film. Klein told journalist Jeffrey Goldberg that despite previous claims, "Bacile" is not a real person and is neither Israeli nor Jewish and that the name is a pseudonym. Israeli authorities found no sign of his being an Israeli citizen, and there was no indication of a "Sam Bacile" living in California or participating in Hollywood filmmaking.
By September 13, 2012, "Sam Bacile" was identified as Nakoula Basseley Nakoula, a 55-year-old Coptic Christian from Egypt living near Los Angeles, California, with known aliases. In the 1990s, he served time in prison for manufacturing methamphetamine. He pleaded no contest in 2010 to bank fraud charges, was sentenced to 21 months in prison, and was released on probation in June 2011. Nakoula claims to have written the script while in prison and raised between $50,000 and $60,000 from his wife's family in Egypt to finance the film. The FBI contacted him due to the potential for threats, but said he was not under investigation. On September 27, 2012, U.S. federal authorities arrested Nakoula in Los Angeles for suspicion of violating terms of his probation. Violations included making false statements regarding his role in the film and his use of the alias "Sam Bacile". On November 7, 2012, Nakoula pleaded guilty to four of the charges against him and was sentenced to one year in prison and four years of supervised release.
Law professor Stephen L. Carter and constitutional law expert Floyd Abrams have each stated that the government cannot prosecute the film's producer for its content because of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which protects freedom of speech in the United States.
Screening and Internet upload
The video production "Innocence of Bin Laden" was advertised in the Anaheim-based newspaper Arab World during May and June 2012. The advertisement cost $300 to run three times in the paper and was paid by an individual identified only as "Joseph". The advertisements were noted by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), whose Islamic affairs director stated, "When we saw the advertisement in the paper, we were interested in knowing if it was some kind of pro-jihadist movie." Brian Donnelly, a guide for a Los Angeles based tour of famous crime scenes who noticed the poster advertising at the Vine Theater, said, "I didn't know if it was a good thing or a bad thing. We didn't know what it was about because we can't read Arabic." The earlier version of the film was screened once at the Vine Theater of June 23, 2012 to an audience of only ten people. The film had no subtitles and was presented in English. An employee of the theater stated, "The film we screened was titled The Innocence of Bin Laden", and added that it was a "small viewing".
A second screening was planned for June 30, 2012. A local Hollywood blogger, John Walsh, attended a June 29 Los Angeles City Council meeting, where he raised his concerns about the title of a film to be screened that appeared to support the leader of al-Qaeda. He said "There is an alarming event occurring in Hollywood on Saturday. A group has rented the Vine Street theater to show a video entitled Innocence of Bin Laden. We have no idea what this group is." The blog site reported that the June 30 screening had been canceled. A Current TV producer photographed the poster while it was being displayed at the theater as advertising to later discuss on the talk show The Young Turks. The poster did not denigrate Muslims, but rather referred to "my Muslim brother". In a translation provided by the ADL, the poster stated it would reveal "the real terrorist who caused the killing of our children in Palestine, and our brothers in Iraq and Afghanistan", a phrase that has been used by Palestinians to protest U.S. support of Israel.
The film was supported and promoted by pastor Terry Jones, known for a Quran-burning controversy, which also led to riots around the world. Jones said that he planned to show a 13-minute trailer at his church, the Dove World Outreach Center in Gainesville, Florida, on September 11, 2012. It was reported on September 14, 2012, that a planned screening by a Hindu organization in Toronto would be coupled with "snippets from other movies that are offensive to Christians and Hindus". Because of security concerns, no public venue was willing to show the film, although the group still planned on showing the film in the future to a private audience of about 200 people. Siobhán Dowling of The Guardian reported that "a far-right Islamophobic group in Germany", the Pro Germany Citizens' Movement, had uploaded the trailer on their own website and wanted to show the entire film, but authorities were attempting to prevent it.
Blocking of the YouTube video
The video clips were posted to YouTube on July 1 by user "sam bacile"; however, by September, the film had been dubbed into Arabic and was drawn to the attention of the Arabic-speaking world by blogger Morris Sadek. Sadek's own Egyptian citizenship had been revoked. A two-minute excerpt dubbed in Arabic was broadcast on September 9 by Sheikh Khalad Abdalla on Al-Nas, an Egyptian television station.
YouTube voluntarily blocked the video in Egypt and Libya and blocked the video in Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, India, and Singapore due to local laws, while Turkey, Brazil, and Russia have initiated steps to get the video blocked. Google, Inc., the owner of YouTube, also blocked the video in Libya and Egypt citing "the very difficult situation" in those countries. In September 2012, the governments of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sudan, and Pakistan blocked YouTube for not removing the video, saying that the website would remain suspended until the film was removed. Government authorities in Chechnya and Daghestan issued orders to internet providers to block YouTube and Iran announced that it was blocking Google and Gmail. Google also agreed to block the anti-Islamic movie in Jordan.
The White House asked YouTube to review whether to continue hosting the video at all under the company's policies. YouTube said the video fell within its guidelines as the video is against Islam, but not against Muslim people, and thus not considered "hate speech". Ben Wizner of the American Civil Liberties Union said of this, "It does make us nervous when the government throws its weight behind any requests for censorship."
Ninth Circuit court rulings on removal
On February 26, 2014, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ordered YouTube to remove the video from its website by a 2-1 majority. The ruling was in response to a complaint by actress Cindy Lee Garcia, who had objected to the use of her performance, which had been partially dubbed for its inclusion in Innocence of Muslims. Garcia had believed during production that she was appearing in a film called Desert Warrior, which was described as a "historical Arabian Desert adventure film", and was unaware that anti-Islamic material would be added at the post-production stage. Garcia had argued that she held a copyright interest in her performance.
In May 2015, in an en banc opinion, the Ninth Circuit reversed the panel's decision, vacating the order for the preliminary injunction. Ibrahim Hooper, the National Communications Director and spokesperson for the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), advised that people should not watch the film.
Reactions and consequences
Protests were held in many nations, through Islamic countries in the Middle East, Asia, and Africa as well as the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Australia.
- 2005 Quran desecration controversy
- 2012 Afghanistan Quran burning protests
- Blasphemy law in the United States
- Fitna (2008) and subsequent protests and trial
- Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson
- Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy
- The Message (1976 film)
- Muhammad in film
- Persecution of Copts
- The Satanic Verses controversy
- South Park controversies § Censorship of the depiction of Muhammad
- Submission (2004)
- Associated Press (September 20, 2012). "Anti-Muslim film got LA County permit for shoot". Reading Eagle.
Anti-Muslim film had permit allowing 1-day shoot at LA County ranch, use of fire, animals
- "County of Los Angeles Releases Redacted Film Permit for "Desert Warriors"" (PDF). FilmLA. September 20, 2012. f00043012.
NOTE: This document has been redacted due to concerns for safety and security of persons and locations
- Esposito, Richard, Ross, Brian and Galli, Cindy (September 13, 2012). "Anti-Islam Producer Wrote Script in Prison: Authorities, 'Innocence of Muslims' Linked to Violence in Egypt, Libya". abcnews.go.com. ABC News.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Dion Nissenbaum; James Oberman; Erica Orden (September 13, 2012). "Behind Video, a Web of Questions". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- Zachary Zahos (September 19, 2012). "The Art of Defamation". The Cornell Daily Sun. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- Dan Murphy (September 12, 2012). "There-may-be-no-anti-Islamic-movie-at-all". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- "Death, destruction in Pakistan amid protests tied to anti-Islam film". CNN. September 21, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
- "Egypt newspaper fights cartoons with cartoons". CBS News. Associated Press. September 26, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
- Latest Protests Against Depictions of Muhammad retrieved 1 October 2012[dead link]
- "'Our beloved Prophet is our honor!': Thousands rally in Pakistan against anti-Islam video". RT. September 29, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Fatwa issued by Muslim cleric against participants in an anti-Islamic film retrieved 1 October 2012 Archived October 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Ryan Villarreal (September 18, 2012). "Hezbollah Issues Fatwa Against 'Innocence Of Muslims' Makers; Rushdie Blasts Movie". Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Egypt cleric issues fatwa against 'Innocence of Muslims' cast retrieved 1 October 2012[dead link]
- "Anti-Islam film: US condemns Pakistan minister's bounty". BBC News. September 23, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Thomas Fenton (September 12, 2012). "Should Innocence of Muslims be censored?". Global Post. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Egypt and Libya: A Year of Serious Abuses, Human rights watch, January 24, 2010
- Raymond Ibrahim (September 6, 2012). "The Collective Punishment of Egypt's Christian Copts". Middle East Forum.
- David D. Kirkpatrick (September 12, 2012). "Anger Over a Film Fuels Anti-American Attacks in Libya and Egypt". The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Sarah Abdurrahman (September 12, 2012). "Why Are All the Religious References in "Innocence of Muslims" Dubbed?". On the Media. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
- "Pentagon to review video of Libya attack – This Just In – CNN.com Blogs". News.blogs.cnn.com. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Noah Shachtman with Robert Beckhusen (September 13, 2012). "Anti-Islam Filmmaker Went by 'P.J. Tobacco' and 13 Other Names". Wired. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
- Marquez, Miguel (September 17, 2012). "Actor: Anti-Islam filmmaker 'was playing us along'". CNN.
- "West urges end to file protests". BBC. September 14, 2012.
- Robert Mackey; Liam Stack (September 11, 2012). "Obscure Film Mocking Muslim Prophet Sparks Anti-U.S. Protests in Egypt and Libya". The New York Times.
- Gross, Michael Joseph (December 27, 2012). "The Making of The Innocence of Muslims: Cast Members Discuss the Film That Set Fire to the Arab World". Vanity Fair. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
- Spetalnick, Matt (September 12, 2012). "Obama vows to track down ambassador's killers". Reuters. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
- Gillian flaccus (September 12, 2012). "California man confirms role in anti-Islam film". Associated Press. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- Paul Bond (September 19, 2012). "Does 'Innocence of Muslims' Actually Exist?". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- Constable, Pamela (September 13, 2012). "Egyptian Christian activist in Virginia promoted video that sparked furor". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
- Willon, Phil (September 14, 2012). "Anti-Muslim film poster in Hollywood surprised locals". Los Angeles Times.
- Kia Makarechi (September 17, 2012). "Anna Gurji & 'Innocence Of Muslims': Horrified Actress Writes Letter Explaining Her Role". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- RISLING, GREG (September 28, 2012). "Calif. man behind anti-Muslim film ordered jailed". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Kim, Victoria (November 7, 2012). "'Innocence of Muslims' filmmaker gets a year in prison". Los Angeles Times.
- Time Waster. "Feds Arrest Producer Of Controversial Anti-Islam Film On Probation Violation Charge". The Smoking Gun. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Audition & Casting Calls for Movie, Theatre, TV, Dance & More - Backstage". Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Yamato, Jen (September 14, 2012). Was Inflammatory 'Innocence Of Muslims' Film Directed By 'Karate Cop,' 'Happy Hooker' Schlock Veteran? Movieline
- Chen, Adrian. ‘It Makes Me Sick’: Actress in Muhammed Movie Says She Was Deceived, Had No Idea It Was About Islam Archived October 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Gawker, September 12, 2012.
- Ryan, Harriet; Garrison, Jenna (September 13, 2012). Christian charity, ex-con linked to film on Islam. Los Angeles Times
- Mark Hosenball (September 19, 2012). "U.S. activist says he was deceived over anti-Muslim film". Reuters.
- Gillian Flaccus (September 14, 2012). "Anti-Muslim film promoter outspoken on Islam". Associated Press.
- "Muhammad Film Consultant: 'Sam Bacile' is Not Israeli, and Not a Real Name – Jeffrey Goldberg". The Atlantic. August 20, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- Peralta, Eyder. "What We Know About Sam Bacile, The Man Behind The Muhammad Movie : The Two-Way". NPR. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "Sam Bacile Identity Doubted". Business Insider. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Richard Verrier (September 14, 2012). "Was 'Innocence of Muslims' directed by a porn producer?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- Kia Makarechi (September 14, 2012). "Alan Roberts & 'Innocence Of Muslims': Softcore Porn Director Linked To Anti-Islam Film". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- "California Man Confirms Role in Anti-Islam Film". Time. Archived from the original on September 16, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "Locate a Federal Inmate: Nakoula Basseley Nakoula". Federal Bureau of Prisons. 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "Alleged anti-Muslim film producer has drug, fraud convictions". Los Angeles Times. September 13, 2012.
- Moni Basu; Chelsea J. Carter (September 14, 2012). "Sam Bacile or Nakoula Basseley Nakoula? Federal officials consider Nakoula as man behind the film". WPTV. CNN. Archived from the original on September 16, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Carter, Stephen L. (September 23, 2012). "Anti-Muslim video incendiary but protected". The Press Democrat. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- Abrams, Floyd (September 20, 2012). "Should YouTube Have Taken Down Incendiary Anti-Muslim Video?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- Mona Shadia; Harriet Ryan (September 15, 2012). "California Muslims hold vigil for slain ambassador". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Hollie McKay (September 13, 2012). "'Innocence of Muslims' producer's identity in question; actors say they were duped, overdubbed". Fox News. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Jessica Garrison; Sam Quinones (September 13, 2012). "Anti-Muslim film screening: L.A. gadfly tried to warn city leaders". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Eric Lach (September 13, 2012). "L.A. Blogger Alerted City Council To Anti-Islam Film In June". TPM. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Ted Johnson (September 14, 2012). "White House presses YouTube on 'Muslims' pic". Variety. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "California Muslims hold vigil for slain ambassador". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- "Boston.com / Sept. 11". Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Terry Jones supports movie behind embassy bombing protests retrieved 7 October 2012
- "American Killed in Libya Attack". Ynetnews.
- Tom Godfrey (September 14, 2012). "Toronto Hindu group plans screening of Innocence of Muslims". QMI Agency.
- Etan Vlessing (September 14, 2012). "Toronto 2012: Canadian Hindu Group Plans Screening of Controversial Anti-Islam Film". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Siobhán Dowling (September 16, 2012). "Far-right German group plans to show anti-Islamic film". guardiannews.com. London. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Sadik, Morris (September 5, 2012). "Global film on the Life of Muhammad Nbyalasalam and the Trial of Mohammed" (in Arabic). Coptic American National Assembly (blog). Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "US envoy dies in Benghazi consulate attack". Al Jazeera English. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- Mike Giglio (September 21, 2012). "Complaint Against Egyptian TV Host Who Aired 'Innocence of Muslims' Raises Free Speech Issue". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- Max Fisher (September 11, 2012). "The Movie So Offensive That Egyptians Just Stormed the U.S. Embassy Over It".
- on YouTube.
- "Google blocks Singapore access to anti-Islam film". Yahoo! News. September 21, 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- Google Has No Plans to Rethink Video Status, The New York Times, September 14, 2012
- ".:Middle East Online::Turkey seeks to ban online access to anti-Islam movie:". Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- "Google blocks video clips in Egypt, Libya amid concerns over anti-Islam film". Al Arabiya. September 13, 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- "YouTube blocked in Pakistan for not removing anti-Islam film". New Delhi: New Delhi Television (NDTV). September 17, 2012. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- Rory Mulholland, Fresh protests as prophet cartoons fuel Muslim fury, AFP.
- YouTube links to anti-Islam film blocked in Jordan
- "Internet Providers In Chechnya Instructed To Block YouTube Over Anti-Islam Film". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- "Daghestan ISP Blocks YouTube Over Anti-Islamic Film". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- "Iran to block access to Google, Gmail amid anti-Islam film protests". Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Activists troubled by White House call to YouTube, Politico, September 14, 2012
- Google ordered to remove anti-Islamic film from YouTube, Reuters, February 26, 2014.
- A controversial YouTube video haunts free speech again, The New Yorker, March 4, 2014.
- Chappell, Bill (May 18, 2015). "Google Wins Copyright And Speech Case Over 'Innocence Of Muslims' Video". NPR. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
- Gardner, Eriq (May 18, 2015). "Controversial 'Innocence of Muslims' Ruling Reversed By Appeals Court". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
- Garcia v. Google, no. 12-57302 (9th Cir. May 18, 2015)(en banc).
- Huffington Post: "Anti-Islam Film Returns To YouTube, And These Muslim Leaders Want You To Ignore It" By Antonia Blumberg May 20, 2015
- al-Salhy, Suadad (September 13, 2012). "Iraqi militia threatens U.S. interests over film". Reuters. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- Gladstone, Rick (September 14, 2012). "Anti-American Protests Over Film Expand to More Than a Dozen Countries". The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- "Anti-Islam film protests escalate". BBC. September 14, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Hundreds of angry Afghans protest anti-Islam film in eastern Afghanistan – The Washington Post
- "Protesters burn flags outside US embassy in London". The Daily Telegraph. September 14, 2012.
- "Over 100 arrested in protest of anti-Islam film outside U.S. embassy in Paris" – Daily News (New York) . Retrieved September 16, 2012.
- "Demo closes American consulate, but took place on the Dam". DutchNews.nl. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- "As it happened: Violence erupts in Sydney over anti-Islam film". ABC News. September 15, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "Police gas Sydney protesters". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- Sam Bacile - The Innocence of Muslims Trailer (reuploaded following the 9th circuit reversal, and remaining accessible three years later)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Innocence of Muslims (film).|
- YouTube channel of Sam Bacile with two videos apparently comprising extracts from the film, uploaded in July 2012.
- "US police quiz anti-Islam video suspect" (video) from al Jazeera's protests live blog
- Beware of Even Numbers - The film ‘Innocence of Muslims’ and the dangerous failing of the media on Tablet Magazine