|The Brahmic script and its descendants|
The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (
The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script has been largely supplanted by the Javanese Latin alphabet.
There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes (distinct sounds) varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan (“pair”), which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable. In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter.
Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence. Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).
Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.
The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.
The Javanese script was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.
The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century. In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.
However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject. Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.
A single letter in the Javanese script is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position related to other letters. It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:
- A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics.
- A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics.
- The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.
There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.
Consonant letters are as follows:
Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available.
Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.
Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the adjective ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element argon for example, is written with swara.
Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.
Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.
The pasangan ra ( ꧀ꦫ) and ya ( ꧀ꦪ) are used when the aforementioned letters belong to a separate word or syllable. If the sound /r/ and /j/ belong to the consonant cluster of the same word or syllable, then the sandhangan cakra ( ꦿ) and pengkal ( ꦾ) are used instead.
Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:
|ꦉ||꧀ꦉ||/rə/||re||Pa cerek||Originally, /r̩/, /l̩/, and /l̩ː/ were present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet (ꦫꦼ), la+pepet (ꦭꦼ), and la+pepet+tarung (ꦭꦼꦴ) combinations respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.|
|ꦋ||꧀ꦋ||/lɤ/||leu||Nga lelet raswadi|
|ꦬ||꧀ꦬ||/ra/||ra||Ra agung||Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.|
|ꦐ||꧀ꦐ||/qa/||qa||Ka sasak||Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.|
|ꦲ꦳||꧀ꦲ꦳||/ħa/||ha||Rekan||Most sounds not native to the Javanese language are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.|
Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦁꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:
|Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)|
|ꦀ||/◌̃/||-m||Sesigeg||Panyangga||Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).|
|ꦁ||/-ŋ/||-ng||Cecak||Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.|
|ꦂ||/-r/||-r||Layar||Adds final /r/ to a syllable.|
|ꦃ||/-h/||-h||Wignyan||Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.|
|ꦽ||/-rə/||-re||Wyanjana||Keret||Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of a separate syllable while wyanjana diacritics are used in a consonant cluster of a single syllable.|
|꧀||/-/||-||Patèn / Pangkon||Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence. Parallel to virama.|
When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.
Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).
|꧊||Pada adeg||Parentheses or quotation marks|
|꧋||Pada adeg-adeg||Introduce a paragraph or section|
|꧌ and ꧍||Pada piseleh||Functions similarly to pada adeg|
|꧈||Pada lingsa||Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.|
|꧇||Pada pangkat||Numeral indicator or colon|
|ꧏ||Pada rangkep||Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.|
|꧁ and ꧂||Rerenggan||Flanks title|
|꧅||Pada luhur||Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank|
|꧄||Pada madya||Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank|
|꧃||Pada andhap||Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank|
|꧋꧐꧋||Pada guru||Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction|
|꧉꧆꧉||Pada pancak||Ends a letter|
|Purwapada||Introduces a poem|
|꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅||Madyapada||Indicates a new song within a poem|
|꧅ꦆ꧅||Wasanapada||Indicates the end of a poem.|
There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write:
In Surakarta, it would be:
Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka perfect pangram sequence, as follows:
of which the line-by-line translation would be:
There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses.
Sanskrit and Old Javanese language
Javanese script have been used in writing Sanskrit and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.
|Short||Aksara||ꦄ||ꦅ / ꦆ||ꦈ||ꦉ||ꦊ||ꦌ||ꦎ|
|Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)|
Javanese script is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ).
Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script (carakan) are:
- Aksara suara is used for writing word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese uses ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ in Javanese.
- Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara have no change.
- Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /ə/ and ꦄꦼꦵ /ɤ/.
- Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. The character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese.
- Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese's ꦚ for /ɲa/.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)
Javanese script is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script is similar to Javanese orthography.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)
- Balinese script omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita.
- Javanese script reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanwords from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.
|Javanese script||Balinese script|
|Note: Balinese script in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.|
Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese
The Javanese script is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" is transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "Solo Grèn Mal" (pronounced /sɔlɔ gren mɔl/).
|Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga|
|JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy|
|Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto|
|Aturra, by Aditya Bayu Perdana|
|Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten|
|Noto Sans Javanese, by Google Inc.|
|Djoharuddin, by Aditya Bayu Perdana|
- first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Javanese.
As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga, Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten, JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy, Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov, and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto, which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font, and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000. There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu Perdana in 2012–2013. In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.
Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script in Unicode.
Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script in the Javanese Deep web.
Javanese script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2.
The Unicode block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.
Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.
Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta (1938).
One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.
The Special Region of Yogyakarta emblem honors the Javanese script
Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta Sultanate
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- Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge.
- Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation.
- Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara.
- Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press.
- Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa.
- Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta
- Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script in the UCS" (PDF).
- "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.
- Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode.
- Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880).
- Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London
- Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817).
- Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- Matthew Arciniega's page
- AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire
- Aditya Bayu Perdana Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese
- Pitulung: Aksara Jawa
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.|
- Unicode Table of the Javanese script
- Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems
- Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today
- Page from Javanese Deep web detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English)
- Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode font with SIL Graphite smart font technology
- Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology
- Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)
- Tools to Convert Tools to Convert