Kalkoti language

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Kalkoti
Pronunciation[kʰælkoːʈ]
Native toPakistan
RegionKhyber Pakhtunkhwa
Native speakers
6,000 (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3xka
Glottologkalk1245[2]

Kalkoti, also known as Goedijaa,[3] is a Dardic language of the Shina group spoken in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.[1] It is surrounded by languages predominantly in the Kohistani group. It is only spoken in a few villages of Kalkot.

Phonology[edit]

The following tables outline the phonology of Kalkoti.[4]

Vowels[edit]

Front Back
Close ɪ~i(ː) ʊ~u(ː)
Mid
Open ə~æ(ː)~aː ɑ(ː)~ɒ(ː)

Short vowels are slightly centralized; nasalization of vowels may be phonemic.[4]

Consonants[edit]

Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ (?) ŋ (?)
Plosive voiceless p t ʈ k q ʔ (?)
aspirated ʈʰ (?)
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Affricate voiceless ts
aspirated tʂʰ (?) tʃʰ
voiced
Fricative voiceless (f) s ʂ ʃ x
voiced z ɣ
Lateral l
Flap ɾ ɽ (?)
Approximant ʋ j

The phonemes /q, ʦ, x, z, ɣ, ɽ/ have likely been introduced by loanwords. The voiceless aspirate series is secure, and, unlike the neighboring Palula language, Kalkoti does not have a breathy voiced series. The phonemic status of /ʔ/ is unclear and is likely tied to tone in Kalkoti.

Tone[edit]

Kalkoti's system of tone likely was similar to Shina's two tone system; however, under pressure from its Kohistani neighbors it may now have a more complex tone inventory.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kalkoti at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kalkoti". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Liljegren 2013, p. 129.
  4. ^ a b c Liljegren 2013, pp. 134–44.

Bibliography[edit]