Kundal Shahi language

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Kundal Shahi
کنڈل شاہی
Native toPakistan
RegionNeelam Valley
Native speakers
700 (2005)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3shd
Kundal Shahi is located in Azad Kashmir
Kundal Shahi
Kundal Shahi
Kundal Shahi is located in Pakistan
Kundal Shahi
Kundal Shahi
Coordinates: 34°33′17″N 73°50′38″E / 34.5548°N 73.8439°E / 34.5548; 73.8439

Kundal Shahi is a Dardic language spoken by about 700 people in the Kundal Shahi village of Neelam Valley in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. It is an endangered language and its speakers are shifting to Hindko.


The following tables set out the phonology of Kundal Shahi.[3]


Kundal Shahi is unusual amongst Dardic languages in that it has front rounded vowels.[4]

Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i iː y yː u uː
Close-Mid e eː øː ə o oː
Open-Mid ɛ ɛː ʌ ɔ ɔː
Open a aː


Like Kashmiri, Kundal Shahi is unusual amongst Dardic languages in that it lacks retroflex fricatives and affricates.[4]

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ (ŋ)
Plosive voiceless p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Affricate voiceless
aspirated tʃʰ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x h
voiced z
Lateral l
Flap ɾ ɽ
Approximant j w


Kundal Shahi, like many Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or, as in Kundal Shahi, pitch accent.[5] Words may have only one accented mora, which is associated with high pitch; the remaining mora have a default or low pitch.[4]


  1. ^ Kundal Shahi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kundal Shahi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Baart & Rehman 2005, pp. 10–13.
  4. ^ a b c Baart & Rehman 2005.
  5. ^ Baart 2003, pp. 3, 6.

Bibliography and further reading[edit]

  • Baart, Joan L. G. (2003), Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan (PDF), National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics, pp. 3, 6</ref>
  • Baart, Joan L. G.; Rehman, Khawaja A. (2005). "A first look at the language of Kundal Shahi in Azad Kashmir". SIL Electronic Working Papers. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Rehman, Khawaja A. (2011). "Ergativity In Kundal Shahi, Kashmiri And Hindko". In Mark Turin, Bettina Zeisler (eds.) (eds.). Himalayan languages and linguistics: studies in phonology, semantics, morphology and syntax. Brill's Tibetan studies library, Languages of the greater Himalayan region. Leiden: Brill. pp. 219–234. ISBN 978-90-04-19448-9.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  • Rehman, Khawaja A. (2011). Language Shift In the Neelam Valley: A Case Study of the Kundal Shahi Language (PhD). Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.

External links[edit]