List of federal judges appointed by George Washington
United States President George Washington appointed 39 Article III United States federal judges during his presidency, which lasted from April 30, 1789 to March 4, 1797. The first group of Washington's appointments—two justices of the Supreme Court of the United States and ten district court judges—began service two days after Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789, which formally established the federal judiciary. Washington's last court appointee received his commission twelve days before the end of Washington's presidency.
As the first President, Washington was responsible for appointing the entire Supreme Court; he appointed a record eleven justices, including two Chief Justices who were confirmed from outside the Court and one former Justice named as Chief Justice by a recess appointment, but not ultimately confirmed to the position. Additionally, Washington nominated Robert H. Harrison, who declined to serve, and nominated William Cushing for elevation to Chief Justice, who likewise declined.[Note 1]
Since there were no sitting justices at the beginning of Washington's term, he had the unique opportunity to fill the entire body of United States federal judges with his selections. Despite this, Washington appointed only 28 judges to the United States district courts, due to the smaller size of the judiciary at the time; there were far fewer states, most states had a single district court, and each district had a single judge assigned to it. Because intermediate federal appellate courts had not yet been established, this, combined with the Supreme Court appointments, constituted the total number of federal judicial appointments made by Washington. The number is roughly 10% of the record 376 judges appointed by Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, when the judiciary was much larger,[Note 2] and less than 5% of the number of active federal judges serving as of July 2010.[Note 3] Richard Peters Jr. served for over 36 years, the longest of Washington's appointments.
Washington appointed a small number of Article IV territorial judges. He appointed Samuel Holden Parsons, John Cleves Symmes, George Turner and Rufus Putnam to the court of the Northwest Territory, Putnam being appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Parsons. He appointed David Campbell, John McNairy and Joseph Anderson to the court of the Southwest Territory. After the Southwest Territory was admitted to the union as the State of Tennessee, McNairy would go on to serve as its first United States District Judge.
As no Article I legislative courts existed during Washington's administration, he made no judicial appointments under Article I. The first court created under Article I, the United States Court of Claims, would not be established until 1855, under the administration of President Franklin Pierce.
John Rutledge was appointed to the serve on the Supreme Court twice, first as associate justice and then, after a period of years off the Court, as chief justice.
Richard Peters Jr. served on the U.S. District Court for the District of Pennsylvania for over 36 years, the longest of Washington's appointments.
United States Supreme Court Justices
|1||John Jay||Chief||New York||Seat established||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 26, 1789||June 29, 1795|
|2||John Rutledge||1||South Carolina||Seat established||September 24, 1789[Note 4]||September 26, 1789||September 26, 1789||March 5, 1791|
|2.1||John Rutledge||Chief||South Carolina||John Jay||December 10, 1795[Note 4]||–||July 1, 1795||December 28, 1795|
|3||William Cushing||2||Massachusetts||Seat established||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 27, 1789||September 13, 1810|
|4||James Wilson||3||Pennsylvania||Seat established||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 29, 1789||August 21, 1798|
|5||John Blair Jr.||4||Virginia||Seat established||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 30, 1789||October 25, 1795|
|6||James Iredell||5||North Carolina||Seat established||February 8, 1790||February 10, 1790||February 10, 1790||October 20, 1799|
|7||Thomas Johnson||1||Maryland||John Rutledge||October 31, 1791||November 7, 1791||August 5, 1791||January 16, 1793|
|8||William Paterson||1||New Jersey||Thomas Johnson||March 4, 1793||March 4, 1793||March 4, 1793||September 9, 1806|
|9||Samuel Chase||4||Maryland||John Blair Jr.||January 26, 1796||January 27, 1796||January 27, 1796||June 19, 1811|
|10||Oliver Ellsworth||Chief||Connecticut||John Rutledge||March 3, 1796||March 4, 1796||March 4, 1796||December 15, 1800|
|1||Gunning Bedford Jr.||D. Del.||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 26, 1789||March 30, 1812|
|2||David Brearley||D.N.J.||September 25, 1789||September 25, 1789||September 26, 1789||August 16, 1790|
|3||James Duane||D.N.Y.||September 25, 1789||September 25, 1789||September 26, 1789||March 17, 1794|
|4||Francis Hopkinson||D. Pa.||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 26, 1789||May 9, 1791|
|5||Harry Innes||D. Ky.||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 20, 1816|
|6||Richard Law||D. Conn.||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 26, 1789||January 26, 1806|
|7||John Lowell||D. Mass.||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 26, 1789||February 20, 1801|
|8||Nathaniel Pendleton||D. Ga.||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 1, 1796|
|9||David Sewall||D. Me.||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 26, 1789||January 9, 1818|
|10||John Sullivan||D.N.H.||September 24, 1789||September 26, 1789||September 26, 1789||January 23, 1795|
|11||William Drayton Sr.||D.S.C.||February 8, 1790||February 10, 1790||November 18, 1789||May 18, 1790|
|12||Cyrus Griffin||D. Va.||February 8, 1790||February 10, 1790||November 28, 1789||December 14, 1810|
|13||William Paca||D. Md.||February 8, 1790||February 10, 1790||December 22, 1789||October 13, 1799|
|14||Thomas Bee||D.S.C.||June 11, 1790||June 14, 1790||June 14, 1790||February 18, 1812|
|15||Henry Marchant||D.R.I.||July 2, 1790||July 3, 1790||July 3, 1790||August 30, 1796|
|16||John Stokes||D.N.C.||August 2, 1790||August 3, 1790||August 3, 1790||October 12, 1790|
|17||Robert Morris||D.N.J.||December 17, 1790||December 20, 1790||August 28, 1790||February 13, 1801|
|18||John Sitgreaves||D.N.C.||December 17, 1790||December 20, 1790||December 20, 1790||June 9, 1794|
|19||Nathaniel Chipman||D. Vt.||March 4, 1791||March 4, 1791||March 4, 1791||January 1, 1793|
|20||William Lewis||D. Pa.||October 31, 1791||November 7, 1791||July 14, 1791||January 4, 1792|
|21||Richard Peters||D. Pa.||January 12, 1792||January 13, 1792||January 12, 1792||August 22, 1828|
|22||Samuel Hitchcock||D. Vt.||December 27, 1793||December 30, 1793||September 3, 1793||February 20, 1801|
|23||John Laurance||D.N.Y.||May 5, 1794||May 6, 1794||May 6, 1794||November 8, 1796|
|24||John Pickering||D.N.H.||February 10, 1795||February 11, 1795||February 11, 1795||March 12, 1804|
|25||Joseph Clay Jr.||D. Ga.||December 21, 1796||December 27, 1796||September 16, 1796||May 12, 1801|
|26||Benjamin Bourne||D.R.I.||December 21, 1796||December 22, 1796||October 13, 1796||February 20, 1801|
|27||Robert Troup||D.N.Y.||December 9, 1796||December 10, 1796||December 10, 1796||April 4, 1798|
|28||John McNairy||D. Tenn.||February 17, 1797||February 20, 1797||February 20, 1797||April 29, 1802|
- Some documents claim that he accepted the appointment and immediately resigned.
- The Biographical Directory of Federal Judges lists 358 judges appointed by President Reagan, with reappointments and elevations bringing the number to 376.
- The Biographical Directory of Federal Judges lists close to 800 judges in active status, with nearly to 500 more in senior status.
- Unusually, Rutledge served two different terms on the Supreme Court. He was first appointed as an Associate Justice in 1789, resigning from that position in 1791. He became Chief Justice via a recess appointment in 1795, and was formally nominated on December 10, 1795. His nomination was thereafter rejected by the Senate in December 1795, and he resigned shortly after.
- See List of United States district and territorial courts
- "Judges of the United States Courts". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- Marcus, Maeva; Perry, James R., eds. (1985), The Documentary History of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1789–1800, Volume 1, New York, NY: Columbia University Press
- Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, passim.
- "The Judiciary Act of 1789". U.S. Congress. September 24, 1789. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- Washington, George (September 28, 1789). "To Robert Hanson Harrison". Washington, George, 1732-1799. The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on February 20, 2011. Retrieved 2009-04-04.
- Washington, George (November 25, 1789). "To Robert Hanson Harrison". Washington, George, 1732-1799. The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on February 20, 2011. Retrieved 2009-04-04.
- Marcus & Perry, p. 103.
- Marcus & Perry, p. 120.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on October 31, 1791, confirmed by the United States Senate on November 7, 1791, and received commission on November 7, 1791.
- Marcus & Perry, p. 89-90.
- Paterson was initially nominated on February 27, 1793, but the nomination was immediately withdrawn by the President for technical reasons, the message being received by the Senate on Feb 28, 1793. Paterson was successfully renominated four days later.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on February 8, 1790, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 10, 1790, and received commission on February 10, 1790.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 17, 1790, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 20, 1790, and received commission on December 20, 1790.
- On February 13, 1801, the District of New Jersey was subdivided into the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New Jersey and the United States District Court for the Western District of New Jersey. Morris was reassigned to be the sole judge for both courts by operation of law. The Districts were reunited on July 1, 1802, and Morris was again reassigned by operation of law to be the sole judge for the reconstituted District of New Jersey, until his death on June 2, 1815.
- On June 9, 1794, the District of North Carolina was subdivided into the Edenton, New Bern, and Wilmington Districts of North Carolina; on March 3, 1797, the single District of North Carolina was reconstituted; and on February 13, 1801, the District was subdivided into the Albemarle, Cape Fear, and Pamptico Districts of North Carolina. In each instance, Sitgreaves was reassigned by operation of law to serve as the sole federal judge for the subdivided or reconstituted District, and he remained the sole federal judge serving the state of North Carolina until his death on March 4, 1802.
- On April 20, 1818, the District of Pennsylvania was subdivided into the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania; Peters was assigned by operation of law to the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, and continued in that office until his death on August 22, 1828.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 27, 1793, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 30, 1793, and received commission on January 28, 1794.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 21, 1796, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 27, 1796, and received commission on January 2, 1797.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 21, 1796, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 22, 1796, and received commission on December 22, 1796.
- On April 29, 1802, the District of Tennessee was subdivided into the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee and the United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee; McNairy was assigned to both districts by operation of law, and continued to be the sole federal judge serving the state of Tennessee until his resignation on September 1, 1833.