List of state and union territory capitals in India
India is a country located in southern Asia. With over 1.3 billion people, India is the most populous democracy in the world. It is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 9 union territories. All states, as well as the union territories of Jammu & Kashmir, Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the central government through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis. Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts.
The state and union territory capitals are sorted according to administrative, legislative and judicial capitals. The administrative capital is where the executive government offices are located, the legislative capital is where the state assembly convenes, and the judicial capital is the location of the state or territorial High Courts. Union territories are marked with a dagger ().
|Administrative capital||Legislative capital||Judicial capital||Year of establishment||Former capital|
|1||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Port Blair||—||Kolkata||1955||Calcutta (1945–1955)|
|2||Andhra Pradesh||Hyderabad (de jure to 2024)
Amaravati (de facto from 2017)[a]
|8||Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu||Daman||—||Mumbai||1945||Mumbai (1954–1961) |
|9||National Capital Territory of Delhi||New Delhi||New Delhi||New Delhi||1931||—|
|13||Himachal Pradesh||Shimla||Shimla (Summer)
|14||Jammu and Kashmir||Srinagar (Summer)
|20||Madhya Pradesh||Bhopal||Bhopal||Jabalpur||1956||Nagpur[f] (1861–1956)|
- After the formation of Telangana, as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, both states will share Hyderabad as their common capital for up to ten years. The new capital of Andhra Pradesh is going to be Amaravati, decided by the Andhra Pradesh government in April, 2016.
- Shilong was the joint capital of Assam and Meghalaya until 1971.
- Chandigarh is the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana, and is a Union Territory, separate from the two states.
- Raipur is the interim capital of Chhattisgarh. The town of Naya Raipur 17 km from Raipur is envisaged as the state's new capital.
- Panaji was the capital of Goa from 1843 when it was ruled by the Portuguese.
- Nagpur was the capital of Central Provinces and Berar which was a province from 1861 until 1950. Central Province became the major constituent of Madhya Pradesh, after it was formed in 1950. Nagpur remained the capital of the new state. In 1956, Berar (Vidarbha) was separated from Madhya Pradesh, and merged with the Bombay State. Nagpur thus lost the status of a capital city. In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra.
- Mumbai / Bombay was the capital of Bombay Presidency which was a province until 1950. After that Bombay became the capital of Bombay State. Subsequently, Bombay State was split into Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960.
- Gangtok has been the capital of Sikkim since 1890. Sikkim joined the Indian Union in 1975.
- Chennai (Madras) was the capital of the Madras Presidency since 1839, which was redrawn as Madras State in 1956. Madras State was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968.
- After the formation of Telangana, as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, both states will share Hyderabad as their common capital for ten years. The new Andhra Pradesh Capital City capital is going to be Amaravati, decided by the Andhra Pradesh government in April, 2016.
- Dehradun is the interim capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsain is envisaged as the state's new capital.
- Sharma 2007, p. 49.
- "After 2200 Years, Amaravati Gets Back Power!". Gulte.com. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- "AP Government Portal - Official Andhra Pradesh State Govt. Portal". Ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- Baruah 1999, p. xiii.
- Menon & Banerjea 2002, p. 5.
- Ring 1996, p. 288.
- "Dharamshala Declared Second Capital of Himachal". www.hillpost.in. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- "What is the Darbar Move in J&K all about?". The Hindu. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- Boland-Crewe & Lea 2002, p. 155.
- Kumāra 1998, p. 136.
- Kini 1974, pp. 34–35.
- Spate 1953, p. 200.
- Sati & Kumar 2004, pp. 9–10.
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- Ring, Trudy (1 January 1996). Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad; Kumar, Kamlesh (2004). Uttaranchal: Dilemma Of Plenties And Scarcities. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-898-3. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Sharma, B. K. (August 2007). Introduction to the Constitution of India (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-81-203-3246-1.
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