Media in Jammu and Kashmir
Media in Jammu and Kashmir consists of periodicals such as Greater Kashmir and Rising Kashmir and radio stations such as Radio Kashmir Jammu and Radio Sharda. Various books have been written about the region, a large number being related to the Kashmir conflict. Urdu and english are the main languages used. 19 journalists have been killed in Jammu and Kashmir since 1990. The region has seen various prohibitive measures against the media.
A Press Council of India report in 2017 titled "Media and Media Scenario of J&K" in 2017 stated that newspapers and periodical approved by the government of Jammu and Kashmir in which government-sponsored advertisements are released is 467, with 146 of them being on the DAVP panel[clarification needed].
During the Kashmir conflict following 1989, cinema halls were closed. Kashmiri militants said that films in movie halls were "un-islamic" while the Indian Army used movie halls as garrisons. In 1999 attempts were made to reopen the movie halls, but after a series of attacks, soon they were shut again. The movie hall "Neelam" has been used by the CRPF till as recent as July 2018. During the "Kashmir World Film Festival" in 2017, Naeem Akhtar, a Kashmiri politician, talked about reopening of the cinema halls.
Radio stations in Jammu and Kashmir include "Radio Kashmir Jammu" and "Radio Sharda". Radio Jammu Kashmir was the first broadcasting centre of Jammu and Kashmir, coming into existence on 1 December 1947. Radio Sharda, a worldwide community radio service for Kashmiri Pandits, was started by Ramesh Hangloo.
Writers produce books "documenting everything (in Jammu and Kashmir) from folklore to political happenings, to the sufferings of people". A number of young writers are seen.
Gulshan Books is the only bookshop-library on a lake in Jammu and Kashmir.
Media coverage of the Kashmir conflict
A study by Chindu Sreedharan concluded the dominance of "anti-peace news" in the overall coverage of Kashmir suggesting that the press in India and Pakistan has a counterproductive role in the Kashmir issue and that the "coverage was vigorously government-led and intensely 'negative'". A study in the Pakistan Journal of History and Culture found that newspapers of both countries (India and Pakistan) were "setting the agenda on Kashmir issue positively in the light of foreign policy of their respective country".
A Reuters Institute Fellowship paper titled "Media Propaganda and the Kashmir Dispute: A Case Study of the Kashmir Floods" based on an analysis of the New Delhi-based media’s coverage of the 2014 floods in Kashmir, the study concludes that "its reporting was biased and subjective". Almost all the coverage focused on the rescue efforts of the Indian armed forces. while the contribution made by local volunteers in providing relief was. The paper established that The Times of India devoted 57% of its coverage "specifically to the army’s relief efforts" while NDTV focused 97% of its content "on the army and government’s role in the crisis".
Attacks on journalists in the Kashmir conflict
Since 1990, the total number of journalists who have been killed in Jammu and Kashmir is 19.
The first major killing in Jammu and Kashmir by militants was of Lassa Kaul, the Director of Srinagar Doordarshan in February 1990, outside his house in Bemina. This was followed by the killing of P.N. Handoo of the State Information Department. Militant and terrorist groups also "imposed a ban on the distribution of national newspapers and Kashmir Times and Excelsior, both published in English from Jammu". Ghulam Muhammad Lone and his eight year old son were killed in 1994 by gunmen. On 10 August 2000, a grenade killed seven journalists including Pradeep Bhatia, a journalist from Hindustan Times. Asiya Jeelani, a print reporter, died after a van in a landmine blast in Kupwara. The most recent killing of a journalist, Shujaat Bukhari, happened in June 2018.
Prohibitive measures against media
A Press Council of India report in 2017 titled "Media and Media Scenario of J&K" in 2017 states that “journalists in Kashmir have to manage the reality of walking on the tightrope amidst the threats of gun and political arm-twisting”. Security forces consider photojournalists as "instigating protestors", while the protestors call them "government agents".
Arrest of journalists
Kamran Yusuf, a freelance Kashmiri photojournalist, was arrested by the National Investigation Agency (NIA) on 5 September 2017 and was released on bail on 14 March 2018. During this time, he was lodged in the Tihar Jail, New Delhi. The bail petition was opposed by the NIA. In an earlier case, Dawn reported that on 19 August 2011, Showkat Shafi, a freelance photojournalist was "beaten by government forces" and then taken to the nearest police station. After his release, he had to be hospitalised.
In 2016, newspaper publications were banned for three days in Kashmir.
On 24 August 2017, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology sent a letter to Twitter under Section 69A of the IT Act to censor content. Following this Twitter users received official legal complaints from Twitter.
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