Peopling of India

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Successive dispersals of      Homo erectus (yellow),      Homo neanderthalensis (ochre) and      Homo sapiens (red).

The peopling of India refers to the migration of Homo sapiens into the Indian subcontinent. Anatomically modern humans settled India in multiple waves of early migrations, over tens of millennia.[1] The first migrants came with the Southern Coastal dispersal, ca. 65,000 years ago, whereafter complex migrations within south and southeast Asia took place. With the onset of farming the population of India changed significantly by the migration of Iranian agri-culturalists and the Indo-Europeans, while the migrations of the Munda people and the Tibeto-Burmese speaking people also added new elements.

Ancestral components in the Indian population[edit]

AASI, IVC, ASI, ANI[edit]

Reich et al. (2009) discerned two major ancestral components in India,[2][3][4] namely the Ancestral North Indians (ANI) which is "genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans," and the Ancestral South Indians (ASI) which is clearly distinct from ANI and "not closely related to groups outside the subcontinent". As no "ASI" ancient DNA is available, the indigenous Andamanese (exemplified by the Onge, a possibly distantly related population native to the Andaman Islands) is used as an (imperfect) proxy. Reich et al. stated that “ANI ancestry ranges from 39-71% in India, and is higher in traditionally upper caste and Indo-European speakers”.[2]

Modern South Asians have not been found to carry the paternal lineages common in the Andamanese, which has been suggested to indicate that certain lineages may have become extinct in India or that they may be very rare and have not yet been sampled.[5]

According to Basu et al. (2016), the ASI are earliest settlers in India, possibly arriving on the southern exit wave out of Africa.[6] These two groups mixed in India between 4,200 and 1,900 years ago (2200 BCE-100 CE), whereafter a shift to endogamy took place,[4] possibly by the enforcement of "social values and norms" by the "Hindu Gupta rulers."[7]

Moorjani et al. (2013) describe three scenarios regarding the bringing together of the two groups:

  • Migrations before the development of agriculture (8,000–9,000 years before present BP).
  • Migration of western Asian people together with the spread of agriculture, maybe up to 4,600 years BP.
  • Migrations of western Eurasians from 3,000 to 4,000 years BP.[8] Moorjani suggests that the ANI and the ASI were plausibly present "unmixed" in India before 2,200 BC.[4]

According to Basu et al. (2016), mainland India harbors two additional distinct ancestral components which have contributed to the gene pools of the Indian subcontinent,[note 1] namely Ancestral Austro-Asiatic (AAA) and Ancestral Tibeto-Burman (ATB).[9] According to Basu et al. (2016), the populations of the Andaman Islands archipelago form a distinct, fifth ancestry, which is "coancestral to Oceanic populations."[10]

A genetic and biogeographical study (Das et al. 2016) resulted in support for a Caucasoid origin of proto-Dravidians (or that most of the first wave of Caucasoids into India were proto-Dravidian speakers). According to the study these proto-Dravidians migrated into India around 4,000 BC from a region later known as Elam in modern day Iran. The authors suggest that this results support the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis.[11]

Narasimhan et al. (2018) conclude that ANI and ASI were formed in the 2nd millennium BCE.[12] They were preceded by a mixture of AASI (ancient ancestral south Indian, i.e. hunter-gatherers sharing a common root with the Andamanese); and Iranian agriculturalists who arrived in India ca. 4700–3000 BCE, and "must have reached the Indus Valley by the 4th millennium BCE".[12] According to Narasimhan et al., this mixed population, which probably was native to the Indus Valley Civilisation, "contributed in large proportions to both the ANI and ASI", which took shape during the 2nd millennium BCE. ANI formed out of a mixture of "Indus Periphery-related groups" and migrants from the steppe, while ASI was formed out of "Indus Periphery-related groups" who moved south and mixed further with local hunter-gatherers. The ancestry of the ASI population is suggested to have averaged about 73% from the AASI and 27% from Iranian-related farmers. Narasimhan et al. observe that samples from the Indus periphery group are always mixes of the same two proximal sources of AASI and Iranian agriculturalist-related ancestry; with "one of the Indus Periphery individuals having ~42% AASI ancestry and the other two individuals having ~14-18% AASI ancestry" (with the remainder of their ancestry being from the Iranian agriculturalist-related population).[12]

Two genetic studies (Shinde et al. 2019 and Narasimhan et al. 2019,) analysing remains from the Indus Valley civilisation (of parts of Bronze Age Northwest India and East Pakistan), found them to have a mixture of ancestry: Shinde et al. found their samples to have about 50-98% of their genome from peoples related to early Iranian farmers, and from 2-50% of their genome from native South Asian hunter-gatherers sharing a common ancestry with the Andamanese, with the Iranian-related ancestry being predominant on average. And the samples analyzed by Narasimhan et al. had 45–82% Iranian farmer-related ancestry and 11–50% AASI (or Andamanese-related hunter-gatherer ancestry). The analysed samples of both studies have little to none of the "Steppe ancestry" component associated with later Indo-European migrations into India. The authors found that the respective amounts of those ancestries varied significantly between individuals, and concluded that more samples are needed to get the full picture of Indian population history.[13][14]

Paleolithic[edit]

First modern human settlers[edit]

Pre- or post-Toba[edit]

The dating of the earliest successful migration modern humans out of Africa is a matter of dispute.[15] It may have pre- or post-dated the Toba catastrophe, a volcanic super eruption that took place between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba. According to Michael Petraglia, stone tools discovered below the layers of ash deposits in India at Jwalapuram, Andhra Pradesh point to a pre-Toba dispersal. The population who created these tools is not known with certainty as no human remains were found.[15] An indication for post-Toba is haplogroup L3, that originated before the dispersal of humans out of Africa, and can be dated to 60,000–70,000 years ago, "suggesting that humanity left Africa a few thousand years after Toba."[15]

It has been hypothesized that the Toba supereruption about 74,000 years ago destroyed much of India's central forests, covering it with a layer of volcanic ash, and may have brought humans worldwide to a state of near-extinction by suddenly plunging the planet into an ice-age that could have lasted for up to 1,800 years.[16] If true, this may "explain the apparent bottleneck in human populations that geneticists believe occurred between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago" and the relative "lack of genetic diversity among humans alive today."[16]

Since the Toba event is believed to have had such a harsh impact and "specifically blanketed the Indian subcontinent in a deep layer of ash," it was "difficult to see how India's first colonists could have survived this greatest of all disasters."[17] Therefore, it was believed that all humans previously present in India went extinct during, or shortly after, this event and these first Indians left "no trace of their DNA in present-day humans" – a theory seemingly backed by genetic studies.[18]

Pre-Toba tools[edit]

Research published in 2009 by a team led by Michael Petraglia of the University of Oxford suggested that some humans may have survived the hypothesized catastrophe on the Indian mainland. Undertaking "Pompeii-like excavations" under the layer of Toba ash, the team discovered tools and human habitations from both before and after the eruption.[19] However, human fossils have not been found from this period, and nothing is known of the ethnicity of these early humans in India.[19] Recent research also by Macauly et al. (2005)[20][21] and Posth et al. (2016),[22] also argue for a post-Toba dispersal.[21] Early Stone Age hominin fossils have been found in the Narmada valley of Madhya Pradesh. Some have been dated to 200- 700,000 BP. It is uncertain what species they represent.[23]

Post-Toba Southern Coastal dispersal[edit]

Migrations routes according to the Coastal Migration Model
Note the route of the mtDNA Haplogroup M through the Indian subcontinent, to Andaman Islands and Southeast Asia.
Note the route of the Y-DNA Haplogroup C through the Indian subcontinent to Australia.
Y-DNA Haplogroup F and it's descendants.

By some 70-50,000 years ago,[24][25][26][27] only a small group, possibly as few as 150 to 1,000 people, crossed the Red Sea.[28] The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around the coast of Arabia and Persia until reaching India, which appears to be the first major settling point.[29] Geneticist Spencer Wells says that the early travellers followed the southern coastline of Asia, crossed about 250 kilometres (155 mi) of sea, and colonized Australia by around 50,000 years ago. The Aborigines of Australia, Wells says, are the descendants of the first wave of migrations.[30]

The oldest definitively identified Homo sapiens fossils yet found in South Asia are Balangoda man. Named for the location in Sri Lanka where they were discovered, they are at least 28,000 years old.[31]

Hypothised substrates[edit]

"Negritos"[edit]

The appropriateness of using the label 'Negrito' to bundle together peoples of different ethnicity based on similarities in stature and complexion has been challenged.[32] The Negrito peoples are more likely descended from the Melanesian-related settlers of Southeast Asia. Vishwanathan et al. (2004) conclude that "the tribal groups of southern India share a common ancestry, regardless of phenotypic characteristics, and are more closely related to other Indian groups than to African groups."[33] According to Vishwanathan et al. (2004), the typical "negrito" features could also have been developed by convergent evolution.[33] According to Gyaneshwer Chaubey and Endicott (2013), "At the current level of genetic resolution, however, there is no evidence of a single ancestral population for the different groups traditionally defined as 'negritos."[34]

According to Reich et al. (2009), "ASI, Proto-East-Asians and Andaman islanders" split around 1,700 generations ago. And the Andaman Islanders, though distinct from it, are the closest surviving group to the "ASI" population which contributed varying degrees of ancestry to South Asians.[35][note 2] According to Chaubey and Endicott (2013) Overall, the Andamanese are more closely related to Southeast Asians than they are to present-day South Asians.[34][note 3]

According to a large craniometric study (Raghavan and Bulbeck et al. 2013) the native populations of South Asia (India and Sri Lanka) have distinct craniometric and anthropologic ancestry. Both southern and northern groups are most similar to each other and have generally closer affinities to various "Caucasoid" groups. The study further showed that the native South Asians (including the Vedda) form a distinct group and are not morphologically aligned to "Australoid" or "Negrito" groups. The authors state: "If there were an Australoid “substratum” component to Indians’ ancestry, we would expect some degree of craniometric similarity between Howells’ Southwest Pacific series and Indians. But in fact, the Southwest Pacific and Indian are craniometrically very distinct, falsifying any claim for an Australoid substratum in India."

However, Raghavan and Bulbeck et al., while noting the distinctiveness between South Asian and Andamanese crania, also explain that this is not in conflict with genetic evidence (found by Reich et al. in 2009), which suggests some shared ancestry between Andamanese and South Asians.[36]

Moorjani et al. 2013 state that the ASI, though not closely related to any living group, are "related (distantly) to indigenous Andaman Islanders." Moorjani et al. also suggest possible gene flow into the Andamanese from a population related to the ASI. The study concluded that “almost all groups speaking Indo-European or Dravidian languages lie along a gradient of varying relatedness to West Eurasians in PCA (referred to as “Indian cline”)”.[37]

Basu et al. 2016 concluded that the Andamanese have a distinct ancestry and are not closely related to other South Asians but are closer to Southeast Asian Negritos, indicating that South Asian peoples do not descend directly from "Negritos" as such.[10]

A study by Narasimhan et al. in 2018 observed that samples from an "Indus periphery group" (a population from the periphery of the Indus Valley civilization) are always mixes of Andamanese-related South Asian hunter-gatherer ancestry (called "AASI") and Iranian agriculturalist-related ancestry; with "one of the Indus Periphery individuals having ~42% AASI ancestry and the other two individuals having ~14-18% AASI ancestry".[12]

Genetic studies by Shinde et al. and Narasimhan et al. (both in 2019) on remains from the Indus Valley civilization of northeast India and nearby Pakistan, found a mixture of two kinds of ancestry: Andamanese-related ancestry (ranging from 2% to 50%) and early Iranian farmer-related ancestry (50% to 98%) in those analyzed by Shinde et al. (with the Iranian farmer related ancestry generally greater), and with the samples analyzed by Narasimhan et al. having 45–82% Iranian farmer-related ancestry and 11–50% AASI (or Andamanese-related hunter-gatherer ancestry).[13][14]

Vedda[edit]

Groups ancestral to the modern Veddas were probably the earliest inhabitants of the area. Their arrival is dated tentatively to 60,000–70,000 years ago. They are genetically distinguishable from the other peoples of Sri Lanka and they show a high degree of intra-group diversity. This is consistent with a long history of existing as small subgroups undergoing significant genetic drift.[38][39]

Holocene[edit]

After the last glacial maximum, human populations started to grow and migrate. With the invention of agriculture, the so-called Neolithic revolution, larger numbers of people could be sustained. The use of metals (copper, bronze, iron) further changed human ways of life, giving an initial advance to early users, and aiding further migrations, and admixture.

Iranian agriculturalist-related people[edit]

According to Gallego Romero et al. (2011), their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East."[40] Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation."[41] According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India – likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found."[41]

Asko Parpola, who regards the Harappans to have been Dravidian, notes that Mehrgarh (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE), to the west of the Indus River valley,[42] is a precursor of the Indus Valley Civilisation, whose inhabitants migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation.[43] It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia.[44][45] According to Lukacs and Hemphill, while there is a strong continuity between the neolithic and chalcolithic (Copper Age) cultures of Mehrgarh, dental evidence shows that the chalcolithic population did not descend from the neolithic population of Mehrgarh,[46] which "suggests moderate levels of gene flow."[46] They further noted that "the direct lineal descendents of the Neolithic inhabitants of Mehrgarh are to be found to the south and the east of Mehrgarh, in northwestern India and the western edge of the Deccan plateau," with neolithic Mehrgarh showing greater affinity with chalcolithic Inamgaon, south of Mehrgarh, than with chalcolithic Mehrgarh.[46]

According to David McAlpin, the Dravidian languages were brought to India by immigration into India from Elam.[47][48][49][50] According to Renfrew and Cavalli-Sforza, proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent,[51][52][53][note 4] but more recently Heggerty and Renfrew noted that "McAlpin's analysis of the language data, and thus his claims, remain far from orthodoxy", adding that Fuller finds no relation of Dravidian language with other languages, and thus assumes it to be native to India.[54] Renfrew and Bahn conclude that several scenarios are compatible with the data, and that "the linguistic jury is still very much out."[54][note 5]

A genetic and biogeographical study (Das et al. 2016) resulted also in support for a West Asian (Caucasoid) origin for proto-Dravidians. According to the study these proto-Dravidians migrated into India around 4,000 BC from a region later known as Elam in modern day Iran. The authors suggest that this results support the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis.[11]

Narasimhan et al. (2018) conclude that ANI and ASI were formed in the 2nd millennium BCE.[12], and were preceded by a mixture of “AASI” (ancient ancestral South Asian hunter-gatherers, having a common origin with the Andamanese), and early peoples from what is now Iran, who arrived in India ca. 4700–3000 BCE.[12] Narasimhan et al. observe that samples from the Indus periphery population are always mixes of the same two proximal sources of AASI and Iranian agriculturalist-related ancestry; with "one of the Indus Periphery individuals having ~42% AASI ancestry and the other two individuals having ~14-18% AASI ancestry" (with the remainder of their ancestry being from the Iranian agriculturalist-related population).[12]

The Iranian farmer related ancestry in the Indus Valley Civilisation is estimated at 50-98% according to a 2019 study by Shinde et al. (generally a majority) and at 45–82% according to a 2019 study by Narasimhan et al., with the remainder in both studies (2-50% according to Shinde et al, and 11–50% according to Narasimhan et al.) deriving from the "AASI" population (native South Asian hunter-gatherers sharing a common root with the indigenous Andamanese).[13][14]

Austroasiatic[edit]

According to Ness, there are three broad theories on the origins of the Austroasiatic speakers, namely northeastern India, central or southern China, or southeast Asia.[61] Multiple researches indicate that the Austroasiatic populations in India are derived from (mostly male dominated) migrations from southeast Asia during the Holocene.[62][63][64][65][66][note 6] According to Van Driem (2007),

...the mitochondrial picture indicates that the Munda maternal lineage derives from the earliest human settlers on the Subcontinent, whilst the predominant Y chromosome haplogroup argues for a Southeast Asian paternal homeland for Austroasiatic language communities in India.[67]

According to Chaubey et al. (2011), "AA speakers in India today are derived from dispersal from Southeast Asia, followed by extensive sex-specific admixture with local Indian populations."[63][note 7] According to Zhang et al. (2015), Austroasiatic (male) migrations from southeast Asia into India took place after the lates Glacial maximum, circa 10,000 years ago.[65] According to Arunkumar et al. (2015), Y-chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95, which is typical for Austrosiatic speaking peoples, clearly decreases from Laos to east India, with "a serial decrease in expansion time from east to west," namely "5.7 ± 0.3 Kya in Laos, 5.2 ± 0.6 in Northeast India, and 4.3 ± 0.2 in East India." This suggests "a late Neolithic east to west spread of the lineage O2a1-M95 from Laos."[66][68]

According to Riccio et al. (2011), the Munda people are likely descended from Austroasiatic migrants from southeast Asia.[64][69] According to Ness, the Khasi probably migrated into India in the first millennium BCE.[61]

According to a genetic research (2015) including linguistic analyses, suggests an East Asian origin for proto-Austroasiatic groups, which first migrated to Southeast Asia and later into India.[70]

Indo-Aryans[edit]

Scheme of Indo-European migrations, of which the Indo-Aryan migrations form a part, from c. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the Kurgan hypothesis.
* The magenta area corresponds to the assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture) and the subsequent Yamna culture.
* The red area corresponds to the area which may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to c. 2500 BCE.
* The orange area to 1000 BCE.[71]

The Indo-Aryan migration theory[note 8] explains the introduction of the Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent by proposing migrations from the Sintashta culture[73][74] through Bactria-Margiana Culture and into the northern Indian subcontinent (modern day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal). It is based on linguistic similarities between northern Indian and western European languages, and supported by archeological and anthropological research. They form part of a complex genetical puzzle on the origin and spread of the various components of the Indian population.

The Indo-Aryan migrations started in approximately 1,800 BCE, after the invention of the war chariot, and also brought Indo-Aryan languages into the Levant and possibly Inner Asia. It was part of the diffusion of Indo-European languages from the proto-Indo-European homeland at the Pontic steppe, a large area of grasslands in far Eastern Europe, which started in the 5th to 4th millennia BCE, and the Indo-European migrations out of the Eurasian steppes, which started approximately in 2,000 BCE.[75][72]

The theory posits that these Indo-Aryan speaking people may have been a genetically diverse group of people who were united by shared cultural norms and language, referred to as aryā, "noble." Diffusion of this culture and language took place by patron-client systems, which allowed for the absorption and acculturalisation of other groups into this culture, and explains the strong influence on other cultures with which it interacted.

The idea of an Indo-Aryan immigration was developed shortly after the discovery of the Indo-European language family in the late 18th century, when similarities between western and Indian languages had been noted. Given these similarities, a single source or origin was proposed, which was diffused by migrations from some original homeland. This linguistic argument[76] is complemented with archaeological, literary, and cultural evidence, and research and discussions on it continue.

The Proto-Indo-Iranians, from which the Indo-Aryans developed, are identified with the Sintashta culture (2100–1800 BCE),[77] and the Andronovo culture,[78] which flourished ca. 1800–1400 BCE in the steppes around the Aral sea, present-day Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The proto-Indo-Iranians were influenced by the Bactria-Margiana Culture, south of the Andronovo culture, from which they borrowed their distinctive religious beliefs and practices. The Indo-Aryans split off around 1800–1600 BCE from the Iranians,[79] whereafter the Indo-Aryans migrated into the Levant and north-western India.

Tibeto-Burmese[edit]

According to Cordaux et al. (2004), the Tibeto-Burmans possibly came from the Himalayan and north-eastern borders of the subcontinent within the past 4,200 years.[80]

A wide variety of Tibeto-Burman languages are spoken on the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Sizable groups that have been identified are the West Himalayish languages of Himachal Pradesh and western Nepal, the Tamangic languages of western Nepal, including Tamang with one million speakers, and the Kiranti languages of eastern Nepal. The remaining groups are small, with several isolates.

The Newar language (Nepal Bhasa) of central Nepal has a million speakers and a literature dating from the 12th century, and nearly a million people speak Magaric languages, but the rest have small speech communities. Other isolates and small groups in Nepal are Dura, Raji–Raute, Chepangic and Dhimalish. Lepcha is spoken in an area from eastern Nepal to western Bhutan.[81] Most of the languages of Bhutan are Bodish, but it also has three small isolates, 'Ole ("Black Mountain Monpa"), Lhokpu and Gongduk and a larger community of speakers of Tshangla.[82]

Crossovers in languages and ethnicity[edit]

One complication in studying various population groups is that ethnic origins and linguistic affiliations in India match only inexactly: while the Oraon adivasis are classified as an "Austric" group, their language, called Kurukh, is Dravidian.[83] The Nicobarese are considered to be a Mongoloid group,[84][85] and the Munda and Santals Adivasi are "Austric" groups,[86][87][88] but all four speak Austro-Asiatic languages.[84][85][86] The Bhils and Gonds Adivasi are frequently classified as "Austric" groups,[89] yet Bhil languages are Indo-European and the Gondi language is Dravidian.[83]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Basu et al. (2016): "By sampling populations, especially the autochthonous tribal populations, which represent the geographical, ethnic, and linguistic diversity of India, we have inferred that at least four distinct ancestral components—not two, as estimated earlier have contributed to the gene pools of extant populations of mainland India."[9]
  2. ^ According to Basu et al. (2016): "The Andaman archipelago was peopled by members of a distinct, fifth ancestry,"[9] yet they also state that "ADMIXTURE analysis with K = 3 shows ASI plus AAA to be a single population."[9]
  3. ^ Chaubey and Endicott (2013):[34]
    * "these estimates suggest that the Andamans were settled less than ~26 ka and that differentiation between the ancestors of the Onge and Great Andamanese commenced in the Terminal Pleistocene." (p.167)
    * "In conclusion, we find no support for the settlement of the Andaman Islands by a population descending from the initial out-of-Africa migration of humans, or their immediate descendants in South Asia. It is clear that, overall, the Onge are more closely related to Southeast Asians than they are to present-day South Asians." (p.167)
  4. ^ Derenko: "The spread of these new technologies has been associated with the dispersal of Dravidian and Indo-European languages in southern Asia. It is hypothesized that the proto-Elamo-Dravidian language, most likely originated in the Elam province in southwestern Iran, spread eastwards with the movement of farmers to the Indus Valley and the Indian sub-continent."[53]

    Derenko refers to:
    * Renfrew (1987), Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins
    * Renfrew (1996), Language families and the spread of farming. In: Harris DR, editor, The origins and spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, pp. 70–92
    * Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi, Piazza (1994), The History and Geography of Human Genes.
  5. ^ The Elamite-hypothesis has drawn attention in the scholarly literature, but has never been fully accpeted:
    * According to Mikhail Andronov, Dravidian languages were brought to India at the beginning of the third millennium BCE.[55]
    * Kivisild et al. (1999) note that "a small fraction of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture."[56] at ca. 9,300 ± 3,000 years before present,[57] which coincides with "the arrival to India of cereals domesticated in the Fertile Crescent" and "lends credence to the suggested linguistic connection between the Elamite and Dravidic populations."[57]
    * According to Palanichamy et al. (2015), "The presence of mtDNA haplogroups (HV14 and U1a) and Y-chromosome haplogroup (L1) in Dravidian populations indicates the spread of the Dravidian language into India from west Asia."[58]

    According to Krishnamurti, Proto-Dravidian may have been spoken in the Indus civilization, suggesting a "tentative date of Proto-Dravidian around the early part of the third millennium."[59] Krishnamurti further states that South Dravidian I (including pre-Tamil) and South Dravidian II (including Pre-Telugu) split around the eleventh century BCE, with the other major branches splitting off at around the same time.[60]
  6. ^ Nevertheless, according to Basu et al. (2016), the AAA were early settlers in India, related to the ASI: "The absence of significant resemblance with any of the neighboring populations is indicative of the ASI and the AAA being early settlers in India, possibly arriving on the “southern exit” wave out of Africa. Differentiation between the ASI and the AAA possibly took place after their arrival in India (ADMIXTURE analysis with K = 3 shows ASI plus AAA to be a single population in SI Appendix, Fig. S2).[9]
  7. ^ See also:
    * "Origin of Indian Austroasiatic speakers". Dienekes Anthropology Blog.
    * Khan R (2010). "Sons of the conquerors: the story of India?".
    * Khan R (2013). "Phylogenetics implies Austro-Asiatic are intrusive to India".
  8. ^ The term "invasion" is only being used nowadays by opponents of the Indo-Aryan Migration theory.[72] The term "invasion" does not reflect the contemporary scholarly understanding of the Indo-Aryan migrations,[72] and is merely being used in a polemical and distractive way.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Migrant Nation".
  2. ^ a b Reich et al. 2009.
  3. ^ Metspalu et al. 2011.
  4. ^ a b c Moorjani et al. 2013.
  5. ^ Endicott P, Gilbert MT, Stringer C, Lalueza-Fox C, Willerslev E, Hansen AJ, Cooper A (January 2003). "The genetic origins of the Andaman Islanders". American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (1): 178–84. doi:10.1086/345487. PMC 378623. PMID 12478481.
  6. ^ Basu 2016.
  7. ^ Basu et al. 2016, p. 1598.
  8. ^ Moorjani et al. 2013, p. 422-423.
  9. ^ a b c d e Basu 2016, p. 1598.
  10. ^ a b Basu 2016, p. 1594.
  11. ^ a b Das R, Upadhyai P. "Tracing the biogeographical origin of South Asian populations using DNA SatNav" (PDF). Our hypothesis is supported by archaeological, linguistic and genetic evidences that suggest that there were two prominent waves of immigrations to India. A majority of the Early Caucasoids were proto-Dravidian language speakers that migrated to India putatively ~ 6000 YBP.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Narasimhan et al. 2018, p. 15.
  13. ^ a b c Shinde V, Narasimhan VM, Rohland N, Mallick S, Mah M, Lipson M, et al. (October 2019). "An Ancient Harappan Genome Lacks Ancestry from Steppe Pastoralists or Iranian Farmers". Cell. 179 (3): 729–735.e10. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.048. PMC 6800651. PMID 31495572.
  14. ^ a b c Narasimhan VM, Patterson N, Moorjani P, Rohland N, Bernardos R, Mallick S, et al. (September 2019). "The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia". Science. 365 (6457): eaat7487. doi:10.1126/science.aat7487. PMC 6822619. PMID 31488661.
  15. ^ a b c Appenzeller 2015.
  16. ^ a b "Supervolcano Eruption – In Sumatra – Deforested India 73,000 Years Ago". ScienceDaily. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2011. ... new study provides "incontrovertible evidence" that the volcanic super-eruption of Toba on the island of Sumatra about 73,000 years ago deforested much of central India, some 3,000 miles from the epicenter ... initiating an "Instant Ice Age" that – according to evidence in ice cores taken in Greenland – lasted about 1,800 years ...
  17. ^ Oppenheimer Chaudhuri, Stephen (2004). Out of Eden: the peopling of the world. Robinson. ISBN 978-1-84119-894-1. ... The Toba event specifically blanketed the Indian subcontinent in a deep layer of ash. It is difficult to see how India's first colonists could have survived this greatest of all disasters. So, we could predict a broad human extinction ...
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  83. ^ a b Cummins J, Corson D (1999). Bilingual Education. Springer. ISBN 978-0792348061. Retrieved 25 November 2008. ... over one million speakers each: Bhili (Indo-Aryan) 4.5 million; Santali (Austric) 4.2 m; Gondi (Dravidian) 2.0 m; and Kurukh (Dravidian) 1.3 million ...
  84. ^ a b Khongsdier R, Mukherjee N (October 2003). "Growth and nutritional status of Khasi boys in Northeast India relating to exogamous marriages and socioeconomic classes". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 122 (2): 162–70. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10305. PMID 12949836. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2008. ... The Khasis are one of the Indo-Mongoloid tribes in Northeast India. They speak the Monkhmer language, which belongs to the Austro-Asiatic group (Das, 1978) ...
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  86. ^ a b Srivastava M (2007). "The Sacred Complex of Munda Tribe" (PDF). Anthropologist. 9 (4): 327–330. doi:10.1080/09720073.2007.11891020. Retrieved 25 November 2008. ... Racially, they are proto-australoid and speak Mundari dialect of Austro-Asiatic ...
  87. ^ Chaudhuri AB (1993). State Formation Among Tribals: A Quest for Santal Identity. Gyan Publishing House. ISBN 978-8121204224. Retrieved 25 November 2008. ... The Santal is a large Proto-Australoid tribe found in West Bengal, northern Orissa, Bihar, Assam as also in Bangladesh ... The solidarity having been broken, the Santals are gradually adopting languages of the areas inhabited, like Oriya in Orissa, Hindi in Bihar and Bengali in West Bengal and Bangladesh ...
  88. ^ Chaudhuri AB (1949). "Tribal Heritage: A Study of the Santals". Lutterworth Press. Retrieved 25 November 2008. ... The Santals belong to his second "main race", the Proto-Australoid, which he considers arrived in India soon after the Negritos ... Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  89. ^ Shankarkumar U (2003). "A Correlative Study of HLA, Sickle Cell Gene and G6PD Deficiency with Splenomegaly and Malaria Incidence Among Bhils and Pawra Tribes from Dhadgon, Dhule, Maharastra" (PDF). Studies of Tribes and Tribals. 1 (2): 91–94. doi:10.1080/0972639X.2003.11886488. Retrieved 25 November 2008. ... The Bhils are one of the largest tribes concentrated mainly in Western Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Eastern Gujarat and Northern Maharastra. Racially they were classified as Gondids, Malids or Proto-Australoid, but their social history is still a mystery (Bhatia and Rao, 1986) ...

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Ness I (2014). "The Global Prehistory of Human Migration". The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

External links[edit]

Overview
Negritos