Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has had the same geographic boundaries as Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents . Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.
Philadelphia is one of the oldest municipalities in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, and the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, and the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia remained the nation's largest city until being overtaken by New York City in 1790; the city was also one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, serving as temporary U.S. capital while Washington, D.C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a major industrial center and a railroad hub. The city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland, Italy and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city . In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans. The city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950.
Live Aid at JFK Stadium, 1985
Live Aid was a dual-venue benefit concert held on 13 July 1985, and an ongoing music-based fundraising initiative. The original event was organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine. Billed as the "global jukebox", the event was held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London (attended by 72,000 people) and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia (attended by about 100,000 people). On the same day, concerts inspired by the initiative happened in other countries, such as the Soviet Union, Canada, Japan, Yugoslavia, Austria, Australia and West Germany. It was one of the largest-scale satellite link-ups and television broadcasts of all time; an estimated global audience of 1.9 billion, across 150 nations, watched the live broadcast.
Sarah Chang is a classical violinist recognized as a child prodigy who first played as a soloist when she was eight years old. She is a graduate of the Juilliard School and has performed as a soloist with many of the world's major orchestras. Born in Philadelphia and raised in Voorhees—a Philadelphia suburb—she is the daughter of Myoung-Jun, a composer, and Min-Soo Chang, who was a violinist and music teacher. Her mother trained her to play one-finger melodies on the piano at age three. For her fourth birthday, she was given a 1/16-sized violin. In 1986, when Chang was five years old, she auditioned for and was accepted to the Juilliard School by performing the Bruch Violin Concerto No. 1 in G minor. She auditioned at the age of eight with Zubin Mehta and the New York Philharmonic, as well as Riccardo Muti and the Philadelphia Orchestra. Both conductors granted her immediate engagements. In 1991, when Chang was ten years old, she recorded her first album, Debut, which entered the Billboard chart of classical best-sellers. In 2006, Newsweek ranked her as one of the Top Eight Achieving Females in the United States. Chang has also performed with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Berlin Philharmonic, the Vienna Philharmonic, and many others. Chang has been a soloist under many famous conductors including Zubin Mehta, Riccardo Muti, Wolfgang Sawallisch, Plácido Domingo, and John Williams. Notable recital engagements have included her Carnegie Hall debut and performances at the Kennedy Center, Boston's Symphony Hall, London's Barbican Centre, and Berlin's Philharmonie.