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City of waterfalls
|• Body||Ranchi Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Asha Lakra (BJP)|
|• Deputy mayor||Sanjeev Vijayvargiya|
|• Metropolis||652.02 km2 (251.75 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,295 km2 (500 sq mi)|
|Elevation||651 m (2,136 ft)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,300/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, English|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||JH-01 (earlier BR 14)|
|Sex ratio(per 1000 male)||950|
Ranchi (// pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.
According to one popular tale, Captain choose "Archi" a Oraon tribal village as head quarter. "Archi" means Bamboo forest in local Nagpuri dialect. The British inadvertently named "Archi" as "Ranchi".
According to another local story, the name of Ranchi comes from local bird named "Rici" which was mostly found in the "pahadi mandir premise". Up to 1927, the place was known as Rachi. 'Rici' is name for Black Kite (Milvus migrans) in Mundari, the modern day landmark of Ranchi city, the Pahari Mandir, is also known as Rici Buru (रिचि बुरु) - the hill of the kites, and the city originated on the foothills of Rici Buru with the construction of bada talaab by Commissioner Thomas Wilkinson at the same site.
The early evidence of use of several iron slag, pot sheds, iron tools found in Chota Nagpur region around 1400 BCE.  Magadha Empire exercised indirect control over the territory, which lasted until the reign of the Ashoka. Armies of Samudra Gupta passed through the region on their expedition to the Deccan. Nagvanshi king Raja Pratap Rai choose Chutia as his capital which is now a place in Ranchi. Few ruins of Chutia trace back to 2nd Century CE. With the expansion of the Mughal Empire, the sovereign status of the Nagvanshi dynasty was technically affected, but they continued to rule and administer independently. King of Barkagarh Jagannathpur Thakur Ani Nath Shahdeo built Jagannath Temple in 1691.
After Battle of Buxar, Nagvanshi became vassal of East India Company. British reduced Nagvanshi rulers to Jamindar in 1817. In 1833, Captain Wilkinson established head quarter of the South-West Frontier agency in the neighborhood of the present day "Chutia" village. Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo, Pandey Ganpat Rai, Tikait Umrao Singh and Sheikh Bhikhari played a pivotal role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. British made Ranchi as municipality in 1869. Freedom fighter Birsa Munda died in the Ranchi jail on 9 June 1900. Last ruler of the Nagvanshi dynasty was Lal Chintamani Sharan Nath Shahdeo (1931 – 2014). After the formation of the state of Jharkhand, Ranchi became its capital.
Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, and development of the city, the average temperature has increased.
Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Climate Classification: Cwa), its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas (Kanke). The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.
|Climate data for Ranchi|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.7
|Average low °C (°F)||9.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||16.7
As of 2011[update] India census, Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,126,741, making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi has an average literacy rate of 87.68%.
The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.
Hindi is the official language of Ranchi. The populace of Ranchi converse mainly in Hindi. Nagpuri is regional language of the region. A number of other dialects and language spoken are Khortha and Kurmali. Tribal language Mundari is also spoken by the Munda tribe.
Hinduism is the prominent religion of Ranchi followed by 64.31% of the population. Islam is the second most followed religion in the city by 16.42% of the people. Minorities are Christians 8.52%, Sikhism 0.39%, Jains 0.22%, Buddhists 0.06%, those that did not state a religion are 0.35%, and others are 9.72%.
Ranchi have presence of many well known govt. and private organisations in the vicinity of city. SAIL-R&D, MECON.Ltd, Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers (Marine Diesel Engine Project), Central Coalfields, CMPDI.Ltd, Subarnarekha Hydel Project (JSEB), Usha Martin.Ltd (Wire Rope Division), DVC, STPI-Ranchi, Heavy Engineering Corp., Palriwal Industries, Pensol India, Waxpol Industries, Jharkhand Mega Food Park,etc. are the prominent industries here.
The Federation of Jharkhand Chamber of Commerce & Industries (FJCCI), ASSOCHAM, MSME-DI and JIADA are major apex industrial bodies present here. JIADA consists many industrial areas in Ranchi, e.g. - Kokar, Tatisilwai, Namkum,etc. are among them.
As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi is the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India followed by Mangalore and Mysore.
- Sadar Hospital, Ranchi (now Sadar Medical College and Hospital)
- Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences
- Central Instituteof Psychiatry, Kanke
- Medanta Hospital (formerly knwon as Apollo-Abdul Razzaque Ansari Memorial Weaver's Hospital) 
- Bhagwan Mahavir Medica Superspecialty Hospital
- Santevita Hospital
- Orchid Medical Centre
- Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry & Allied Sciences (RINPAS) 
An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted three One day International matches and one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium.
Stadiums in Ranchi
- Jaipal Singh Stadium
- JSCA International Cricket Stadium
- Birsa Munda Hockey Stadium
- Birsa Munda Athletics Stadium
- Birsa Munda Football Stadium
Points of Interest
- Bhagwan Birsa Biological Park, zoo
- Dassam Falls, one of the deadliest falls in India.
- Getalsud Dam, also known as Rukka Dam built in 1971
- Gossner Evangelical Lutheran Church, the oldest missionary organisation in eastern and northern India
- Hundru Falls
- Jagannath Temple, built by Thakur Ani Nath Shahdeo, Raja of Barkagarh Jagannathpur in 1691.
- Jonha Falls, also known as Gautamdhara (the place dedicated to Gautam Buddha)
- Kanke Dam, also known as Gonda Dam built in 1955
- Rock Garden, built along Kanke Dam
- Dewri Temple, temple dedicated to Goddess Durga
- Nakshatra Van
- Pahari Mandir, temple dedicated to Lord Shiva
- Ranchi Science Centre
- Ratu Palace, capital of Nagvanshis of Chotanagpur.
- Sita Falls
- Ranchi State Museum, state or art museum
- St.Mary's Cathedral, oldest church of Ranchi built in 1847
- Tagore Hill, the hangout place of Jyotindranath Tagore, brother of Rabindranath Tagore and have Ramkrishna Mission Ashram at its base.
People from Ranchi
- Rajesh Chauhan, former Indian cricketer, born in Ranchi
- Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Ex-Captain of Indian Cricket Team, famous for winning the Cricket World Cup in 2011
- Carl Haeberlin, German physician, born in Ranchi
- Deepika Kumari, International Level Archer
- Anjana Om Kashyap, Indian journalist and news presenter
- Rajesh Jais, Actor
- Alisha Singh, Dancer and choreographer
- Peter Mansfield, British journalist and historian, was born in Ranchi
- Vinay Pathak, actor schooled at Vikas Vidyalaya, Ranchi
- Mukund Nayak, folk singer and dancer
- Nandlal Nayak, folk artist and music composer
- Deeba, Pakistani actress
- Pat Reid MBE MC, escapee from Colditz Castle, born in Ranchi
- Tapen Sen, Former Judge Calcutta High Court, Punjab & Haryana High Court and Jharkhand High Court
- Telesphore Toppo, Cardinal-Archbishop of Ranchi in the Roman Catholic Church
- List of cities in Jharkhand
- 1967 Ranchi-Hatia riots
- Ranchi district
- Ranchi Junction
- Ranchi Metropolitan Region
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