Samba, Jammu and Kashmir

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Samba, Jammu
City, Municipal Committee
Samba, Jammu is located in Jammu and Kashmir
Samba, Jammu
Samba, Jammu
Location in Jammu and Kashmir, India
Samba, Jammu is located in India
Samba, Jammu
Samba, Jammu
Samba, Jammu (India)
Coordinates: 32°34′N 75°07′E / 32.57°N 75.12°E / 32.57; 75.12Coordinates: 32°34′N 75°07′E / 32.57°N 75.12°E / 32.57; 75.12
Country India
Union territory Jammu and Kashmir
DistrictSamba
Named forSambyal Clan
Area
 • Total1.65 km2 (0.64 sq mi)
Elevation
384 m (1,260 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total12,700
 • Density7,697/km2 (19,940/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)

Samba is a Municipal Committee city in the only sub-district "Samba Tahsil" of the Samba District in the Indian Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.[1] With a population of about 12,700, Samba is the third least populous municipal committee in the district. Its total geographical area is 2 km2 (0.77 sq mi), and it is the second smallest city by area in the sub district. The city is divided into 13 wards for which elections are held every 5 years.[1] Among the 13 wards, Samba Ward No. 13 is the most populous ward with a population of 1702, and Samba Ward No. 11 is the least populous ward with a population of 533.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Before the formation of Samba District, the city was part of Jammu District. The main industrial area of Bari Brahmana, which used to fall under Jammu District, has now been included as part of Samba District. The city has a long tradition of involvement in the army.

Geography[edit]

Samba is located at 32°34′N 75°07′E / 32.57°N 75.12°E / 32.57; 75.12 and has an average elevation of 384 m (1,260 ft). Samba is situated in the Shivalik Hills alongside the National Highway 1-A on the bank of the Basantar River, at a distance of 40 km (25 mi) from the city of Jammu. Samba District borders Udhampur District to the north, Kathua District to the east, Tehsils Jammu and Bishnah of Jammu District to the west, and the Working Boundary Line of Pakistan to the south.

Most of the area of Tehsil Samba is Kandi and rain-fed. The southern area downward of the National Highway is irrigated through the Ravi Tawi Irrigation canal network, contributing to major cereal and vegetable crops as specially assigned by the Ministry of Water Resources through the Command Area Development Department.

A modern industrial complex, the Industrial Growth Center, is located on the bank of the Basantar River. Several small and medium industrial units have been established, providing opportunities for educated unemployed youths, skilled workers, and unskilled laborers to start new business ventures in the private sector.

Climate[edit]

Samba's climate is subtropical; the district is hot and dry in the summer and cold in the winter.[citation needed] As Samba is in the foothills of the mountains, nights in Samba are slightly cooler than those in the neighboring areas of Punjab.[citation needed] Samba's average annual rainfall is 80.07 cm (31.52 in).[citation needed] Its temperature ranges from 5 to 45 °C (41 to 113 °F).[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

Overview[edit]

According to a report released by Census India 2011, the Samba Municipal Committee has population of 12,700, of which 6979 (55%) are males while 5721 (45%) are females.[1] There are 1365 children under seven years old, or 10.75% of the population.[1] There are 2566 households in the city,[1] and an average of five people live in each family.[citation needed]

Caste distribution[edit]

By caste, 71% of Samba residents are from general caste, 28.57% are from schedule caste, and 0.04% are schedule tribes.[1]

Population of Samba by Caste[1]
Total General Schedule Caste Schedule Tribe Children
Total 12,700 9066 3629 5 1365
Male 6979 5041 1934 4 756
Female 5721 4025 1695 1 609

Religious distribution[edit]

In Samba, Hinduism is the dominant religion, while, Christians, Muslims and Sikhs are the minorities.[citation needed]

Population of Samba by Religion
Total Hindu Muslim Christian Sikh Buddhist Jain Others Not Stated
Total (percentages) 100% 95.54% 0.47% 2.08% 1.76% 0.07% 0.00% 0.00% 0.08%
Total (population) 12,700 12,134 60 264 223 9 0 0 10
Male 6979 6644 42 128 156 4 0 0 5
Female 5721 5490 18 136 67 5 0 0 5

Population growth[edit]

The city's population decreased by 20.2% from 2001 to 2011.[citation needed] According to the 2001 census, Samba's total population was about 16,000.[citation needed] The female population growth rate was −8.1%, which was 19.9% higher than male population growth rate of −28%.[citation needed] The general caste population decreased by 27.9%, the schedule caste population increased by 8.5%, and the child population decreased by 24.7% between the two censuses.[citation needed]

Sex ratio[edit]

According to the 2011 census, Samba has 820 females per 1000 males compared to the state average of 889 females per 1000 males.[1] The sex ratio is 798 in general caste, 876 in schedule caste, and 250 in schedule tribe.[citation needed] For children under seven years old, there are 806 girls per 1000 boys in the city, compared to the state average of 862 girls per 1000 boys.[1] Between 2001 and 2011, Samba's overall sex ratio and child sex ratio have increased by 177 females per 1000 males and 36 girls per 1000 boys, respectively.

Literacy[edit]

Samba's literacy rate is 90.45%, which is higher than the state average of 67.16%.[citation needed] Samba's male literacy rate is 94.52%, and its female literacy rate is 85.49%.[citation needed] Among the 10,000 people in the city that are literate, 5882 are males and 4370 are females.[citation needed] Between 2001 and 2011, the city's overall literacy rate has increased by 2%.[citation needed] The male and female literacy rates have increased by 2% and 6%, respectively.[citation needed]

Employment[edit]

In the census, a worker is defined as a person who does business or performs any job, service, cultivation, or labour activity.[1] Of the population, 4356 (34%) are engaged in work or business activities.[1] 91.80% of workers are engaged in Main Work (full-time), and 8.20% of workers are engaged in Marginal Work (part-time).[1]

By sex, 3885 workers are males while 471 workers are females.[1] 56% of the male population and 8% of the female population are workers. 51% of the male population are main workers, and 4% are marginal workers.[citation needed] 7% of the female population are main workers, and 1% are marginal workers.[citation needed]

Landmarks[edit]

The road from Samba to Mansar Lake

Mansar Lake[edit]

Mansar Lake is located on the Samba–Udhampur Road 22 km (14 mi) from Samba. The lake is surrounded by hills with different Hindu temples and attracts a large number of tourists and religious pilgrims in the area. A tourist complex comprising five tourist huts and rooms situated on the bank of the lake provides visitor accommodation. The state government has also established the Surinsar-Mansar Development Authority, which is responsible for implementation of tourism developmental projects in all four tourist destinations.

Villages and temples[edit]

Purmandal is a village located 39 km (24 mi) away from Jammu. It is connected to Samba via the Purmandal–Utterbani–Vijaypur Road. Purmandal is known as "Chotta Kashi" and has old Shiva temples, which have religious importance, surrounded by the Shivalik Hills. Another village, Utterbani, is situated on the bank of the Devika and has historic temples located 5 km (3.1 mi) from Purmandal.

The temple Aap Shambhu Mandir is located in Jammu. Chichi Mata Mandir, a temple located within Samba, is one of the shaktipeeths where Goddess Sati's little finger fell.

Terrorist attacks[edit]

On 9 May 2008, two terrorists crossed the fenced border into Samba. Two days later, the terrorists took a mother with two children hostage in a home. A shootout ensued between the terrorists and six BSF-supported Garhwal Rifles, lasting almost 12 hours, before the terrorists were killed. Five people, including two Jawans (of the six Garhwal Rifles and 20 Jammu and Kashmir Rifles) and one photojournalist, Ashok Sodhi, were killed in the battle.

The situation remained tense the next day, when the six Garhwal Rifles spotted another terrorist in Samba and killed him. As a result, counter-terrorism operations continued for several days to flush out any potential terrorists in hiding. BSF suspected around ten other terrorists sneaked into India on 9 May 2008. The IB blamed the BSF and told the Centre that terrorists were exploiting the fact that the BSF sometimes lowers their vigilance during lulls of action.

On 26 September 2013, militants impersonating army personnel attacked the Hiranagar Police Station. After the attack, the militants commandeered a truck to Samba, located 18 km (11 mi) from Hiranagar. The militants entered the army cantonment and opened fire. In a day-long operation and combat search, all three militants were killed. Twelve others, including a lieutenant colonel, were killed in this incident.[2]

Higher educational institutes[edit]

Higher educational institutes in Samba include the following:

  • BBN Institute of Intellectuals
  • Government Degree College
  • Bhargava Degree College
  • Government Polytechnic College
  • Government ITI
  • Bhargava College of Engineering and Technology
  • Bhargava Law College
  • Central University of Jammu

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Samba Municipal Committee City Population Census 2011-2019 | Jammu and Kashmir". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)