State of the Union
The State of the Union Address (sometimes abbreviated to SOTU) is an annual message delivered by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress at the beginning of each calendar year in office. The message typically includes a budget message and an economic report of the nation, and also allows the President to propose a legislative agenda and national priorities.
The address fulfills the requirement in Article II, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution for the President to periodically "give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient." During most of the country's first century, the President primarily only submitted a written report to Congress. After 1913, Woodrow Wilson, the 28th U.S. President, began the regular practice of delivering the address to Congress in person as a way to rally support for the President's agenda. With the advent of radio and television, the address is now broadcast live across the country on many networks.
- 1 Formality
- 2 History
- 3 Delivery of the speech
- 4 Opposition response
- 5 Significance
- 6 Local versions
- 7 Historic speeches
- 8 TV ratings
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
He shall from time to time give to Congress information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.— Article II, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution
Though the language of the clause is not specific, since the 1930s, the President has made this report annually in late January or early February. Between 1934 and 2013 the date has been as early as January 3, and as late as February 12.
While not required to deliver a speech, every president since Woodrow Wilson, with the notable exception of Herbert Hoover, has made at least one State of the Union report as a speech delivered before a joint session of Congress. Before that time, most presidents delivered the State of the Union as a written report.
Since Franklin Roosevelt, the State of the Union is given typically each January before a joint session of the United States Congress and is held in the House of Representatives chamber of the United States Capitol. Newly inaugurated presidents generally deliver an address to Congress in February of the first year of their term, but this speech is not officially considered to be a "State of the Union".
What began as a communication between president and Congress has become in effect a communication between the president and the people of the United States. Since the advent of radio, and then television, the speech has been broadcast live on most networks, preempting scheduled programming. To reach the largest audience, the speech, once given during the day, is now typically given in the evening, after 9 p.m. ET (UTC-5).
George Washington delivered the first regular annual message before a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1790, in New York City, then the provisional U.S. capital. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson discontinued the practice of delivering the address in person, regarding it as too monarchical (similar to the Speech from the Throne). Instead, the address was written and then sent to Congress to be read by a clerk until 1913 when Woodrow Wilson re-established the practice despite some initial controversy, and an in-person address to Congress has been delivered nearly every year since. However, there have been exceptions to this rule, with some messages being given solely in writing, and others given both in writing and orally (either in a speech to Congress or through broadcast media). The last President to give a written message without a spoken address was Jimmy Carter in 1981, days before his term ended after his defeat by Ronald Reagan.
For many years, the speech was referred to as "the President's Annual Message to Congress". The actual term "State of the Union" first emerged in 1934 when Franklin D. Roosevelt used the phrase, becoming its generally accepted name since 1947.
Prior to 1934, the annual message was delivered at the end of the calendar year, in December. The ratification of the 20th Amendment on January 23, 1933, changed the opening of Congress from early March to early January, affecting the delivery of the annual message. Since 1934, the message or address has been delivered to Congress in January or February.
The Twentieth Amendment also established January 20 as the beginning of the presidential term. In years when a new president is inaugurated, the outgoing president may deliver a final State of the Union message, but none has done so since Jimmy Carter sent a written message in 1981. In 1953 and 1961, Congress received both a written State of the Union message from the outgoing president and a separate State of the Union speech by the incoming president. Since 1989, in recognition that the responsibility of reporting the State of the Union formally belongs to the president who held office during the past year, newly inaugurated Presidents have not officially called their first speech before Congress a "State of the Union" message.
Warren Harding's 1922 speech was the first to be broadcast on radio, albeit to a limited audience, while Calvin Coolidge's 1923 speech was the first to be broadcast across the nation. President Roosevelt's address in 1936 was the first delivered in the evening, but this precedent was not followed again until the 1960s. Harry S. Truman's 1947 address was the first to be broadcast on television. In 1968, television networks in the United States for the first time imposed no time limit for their coverage of a State of the Union address. Delivered by Lyndon B. Johnson, this address was followed by extensive televised commentary by, among others, Daniel Patrick Moynihan and Milton Friedman. Bill Clinton's 1997 address was the first broadcast available live on the World Wide Web.
Ronald Reagan's 1986 State of the Union Address was the first to have been postponed. He had planned to deliver the speech on January 28, 1986, but it was delayed for a week following the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster that morning. Reagan instead addressed the nation from the Oval Office about the disaster.
On January 23, 2019, the 2019 State of the Union speech by Donald Trump, originally planned for January 29, 2019, was canceled after an exchange of letters with Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi in which she stated she would not proceed with a vote on a resolution to permit him to deliver the speech in the House chamber until the end of 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown. This decision rescinded an earlier invitation from the Speaker, reportedly the first time in American history that a Speaker had "disinvited" the President from delivering the address. They later agreed to hold the speech on February 5, 2019.
In 1999, Bill Clinton became the first president to deliver an in-person State of the Union address while standing trial for impeachment; the speech occurred the same day that Clinton's defense team made its opening statement, though he did not mention the proceeding. In December 2019, days after Donald Trump was impeached, he accepted an invitation to give the State of the Union on February 4, 2020, which could occur during his Senate trial.
Delivery of the speech
Because the address is made to a joint session of Congress, the House and Senate must each pass a resolution setting a date and time for the joint session. Then, a formal invitation is made by the Speaker of the House to the President typically several weeks before the appointed date.
Every member of Congress can bring one guest to the State of the Union address. The President may invite up to 24 guests with the First Lady in her box. The Speaker of the House may invite up to 24 guests in the Speaker's box. Seating for Congress on the main floor is by a first-in, first-served basis with no reservations. The Cabinet, Supreme Court justices, members of the Diplomatic Corps, and the military leaders constituting the Joint Chiefs of Staff have reserved seating.
Protocol of entry into House chamber
By approximately 8:30 p.m. on the night of the address, the members of the House have gathered in their seats for the joint session. Then, the Deputy Sergeant at Arms addresses the Speaker and loudly announces the Vice President and members of the Senate, who enter and take the seats assigned for them.
The Speaker, and then the Vice President, specify the members of the House and Senate, respectively, who will escort the President into the House chamber. The Deputy Sergeant at Arms addresses the Speaker again and loudly announces, in order, the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps, the Chief Justice of the United States and the Associate Justices, and the Cabinet, each of whom enters and takes their seats when called. The justices take the seats nearest to the Speaker's rostrum and adjacent to the sections reserved for the Cabinet and the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Just after 9 p.m., as the President reaches the door to the chamber, the House Sergeant at Arms stands just inside the doors, faces the Speaker, and waits until the President is ready to enter the chamber. When the President is ready, the Sergeant at Arms always announces the entrance, loudly stating the phrase: "Mister [or Madam] Speaker, the President of the United States!"
As applause and cheering begins, the President slowly walks toward the Speaker's rostrum, followed by members of the Congressional escort committee. The President's approach is slowed by pausing to shake hands, hug, kiss, and autograph copies of the speech for Members of Congress. After taking a place at the House Clerk's desk, the President hands two manila envelopes, previously placed on the desk and containing copies of the speech, to the Speaker and Vice President.
After continuing applause from the attendees has diminished, the Speaker introduces the President to the Representatives and Senators, stating: "Members of Congress, I have the high privilege and distinct honor of presenting to you the President of the United States." This leads to a further round of applause and, eventually, the beginning of the address by the President.
At close of the ceremony, attendees leave on their own accord. The Sergeants at Arms guides the President out of the Chamber. Some politicians stay to shake hands with and congratulate the President on the way out.
Designated survivor and other logistics
Customarily, one cabinet member (the designated survivor) does not attend the speech, in order to provide continuity in the line of succession in the event that a catastrophe disables the President, the Vice President, and other succeeding officers gathered in the House chamber. Additionally, since the September 11 attacks in 2001, a few members of Congress have been asked to relocate to undisclosed locations for the duration of the speech to form a rump Congress in the event of a disaster. Since 2003, each chamber of Congress has formally named a separate designated survivor.
Both the Speaker and the Vice President sit at the Speaker's desk, behind the President for the duration of the speech. If either is unavailable, the next highest-ranking member of the respective house substitutes. Once the chamber settles down from the President's arrival, the Speaker officially presents the President to the joint session of Congress. The President then delivers the speech from the podium at the front of the House Chamber.
For the 2011 address, Senator Mark Udall of Colorado proposed a break in tradition wherein all members of Congress sit together regardless of party, as well as the avoiding of standing; this was in response to the 2011 Tucson Shooting in which Representative Gabrielle Giffords was shot and wounded in an assassination attempt. This practice was also repeated during the 2012 address and every address after.
Content of the speech
In the State of the Union address, the President traditionally outlines the administration's accomplishments over the previous year, as well as the agenda for the coming year, often in upbeat and optimistic terms. It has become customary to use the phrase "The State of the Union is strong," sometimes with slight variations, since President Ronald Reagan introduced it in his 1983 address. It has been repeated by every president in nearly every year since, with the exception of George H. W. Bush. Gerald Ford's 1975 address had been the first to use the phrasing "The State of the Union is...", though Ford completed the sentence with "not good."
Since Reagan's 1982 address, it has also become common for presidents of both parties to honor special guests sitting in the gallery, such as American citizens or visiting heads of state. During that 1982 address, Reagan acknowledged Lenny Skutnik for his act of heroism following the crash of Air Florida Flight 90. Since then, the term "Lenny Skutniks" has been used to refer to individuals invited to sit in the gallery, and then cited by the President, during the State of the Union.
State of the Union speeches usually last a little over an hour, partly because of the large amounts of applause that occur from the audience throughout. The applause is often political in tone, with many portions of the speech being applauded only by members of the President's own party. As non-political officeholders, members of the Supreme Court or the Joint Chiefs of Staff rarely applaud in order to retain the appearance of political impartiality. In recent years, the presiding officers of the House and the Senate, the Speaker and the Vice President, respectively, have departed from the neutrality expected of presiding officers of deliberative bodies, as they, too, stand and applaud in response to the remarks of the President with which they agree.
Since 1966, the speech has been followed on television by a response or rebuttal by a member of the major political party opposing the President's party. The response is typically broadcast from a studio with no audience. In 1970, the Democratic Party put together a TV program with their speech to reply to President Nixon, as well as a televised response to Nixon's written speech in 1973. The same was done by Democrats for President Reagan's speeches in 1982 and 1985. The response is not always produced in a studio; in 1997, the Republicans for the first time delivered the response in front of high school students. In 2010, Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell gave the Republican response from the House of Delegates chamber of the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, in front of about 250 attendees.
In 2004, the Democratic Party's response was delivered in Spanish for the first time, by New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson. In 2011, Minnesota Congresswoman Michele Bachmann also gave a televised response for the Tea Party Express, a first for a political movement.
Although much of the pomp and ceremony behind the State of the Union address is governed by tradition rather than law, in modern times, the event is seen as one of the most important in the US political calendar. It is one of the few instances when all three branches of the US government are assembled under one roof: members of both houses of Congress constituting the legislature, the President's Cabinet constituting the executive, and the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court constituting the judiciary. In addition, the military is represented by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, while foreign governments are represented by the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps. The address has also been used as an opportunity to honor the achievements of some ordinary Americans, who are typically invited by the President to sit with the First Lady.
Certain states have a similar annual address given by the governor. For most of them, it is called the State of the State address. In Iowa, it is called the Condition of the State Address; in Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, the speech is called the State of the Commonwealth address. The mayor of Washington, D.C. gives a State of the District address. American Samoa has a State of the Territory address given by the governor. Puerto Rico has a State Address given by the governor. In Guam, the governor delivers an annual State of the Island Address.
Some cities or counties also have an annual State of the City Address given by the mayor, county commissioner or board chair, including Sonoma County, California; Orlando, Florida; Cincinnati, Ohio; New Haven, Connecticut; Parma, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Seattle, Washington; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Los Angeles, California; Buffalo, New York; Rochester, New York; San Antonio, Texas; McAllen, Texas; and San Diego, California. The Mayor of the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County in Nashville, Tennessee gives a speech similar called the State of Metro Address. Some university presidents give a State of the University address at the beginning of every academic term. Private companies usually have a "State of the Corporation" or "State of the Company" address given by the respective CEO.
- President James Monroe first stated the Monroe Doctrine during his seventh annual State of the Union Address to Congress on December 2, 1823. It became a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States and one of its longest-standing tenets, and would be invoked by many U.S. statesmen and several U.S. presidents, including Theodore Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan.
- The Four Freedoms were goals first articulated by Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech, he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy: freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.
- During his State of the Union Address on January 11, 1944, FDR proposed the Second Bill of Rights. Roosevelt's argument was that the "political rights" guaranteed by the constitution and the Bill of Rights had "proved inadequate to assure us equality in the pursuit of happiness".
- During his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964, Lyndon B. Johnson introduced legislation that would come to be known as the "War on Poverty". This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent. The speech led the United States Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, which established the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) to administer the local application of federal funds targeted against poverty.
- During his State of the Union address on January 15, 1975, Gerald R. Ford very bluntly stated that "the state of the Union is not good: Millions of Americans are out of work... We depend on others for essential energy. Some people question their Government's ability to make hard decisions and stick with them; they expect Washington politics as usual." Ford said he didn't "expect much if any, applause. The American people want action, and it will take both the Congress and the President to give them what they want. Progress and solutions can be achieved, and they will be achieved."
- During his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, President Bush identified North Korea, Iran, and Iraq as representing significant threats to the United States. He said, "States like these and their terrorist allies constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world". In this speech, he would outline the objectives for the War on Terror.
|2019-02-05||Donald Trump||46.789||33.616||28.0||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION, CNN, CNNe, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, MSNBC, PBS|
|2018-01-30||45.551||32.168||26.9||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, ESTRELLA, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION, CNN, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, MSNBC, PBS|
|2017-02-28||47.741||33.857||28.7||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, UNIVISION, PBS, CNN, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, MSNBC, NBC UNIVERSO|
|2016-01-12||Barack Obama||31.334||23.040||19.6||ABC, AL JAZEERA AMERICA, AZTECA, CBS, CNN, FOX, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, GALAVISION, MSNBC, NBC, NBC UNIVERSO, UNIVISION**|
|2015-01-20||31.710||23.137||19.9||ABC, AL JAZEERA AMERICA, AZTECA, CBS, CNN, FOX, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, GALAVISION, MSNBC, MUNDOFOX, NBC, UNIVISION**|
|2014-01-28||33.299||23.949||20.7||CBS, ABC, NBC, FOX, AZTECA, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, CNN, MSNBC, CNBC, AL JAZEERA AMERICA, GALAVISION, MUN2, UNIVISION**|
|2013-02-12||33.497||24.767||21.8||FOX, ABC, CBS, NBC, PBS, AZTECA, UNIVISION, MFX, CNBC, CNN, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, MSNBC, CURRENT, CENTRIC, GALAVISION|
|2012-01-24||37.752||27.569||24.0||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, TELEMUNDO, TF, UNIVISION, CNBC, CNN, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, GALAVISION, MSNBC, MUN2|
|2011-01-25||42.789||30.871||26.6||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION, CNN, CENTRIC, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC|
|2010-01-27||48.009||34.182||29.8||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION, CNN, BET, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC|
|2009-02-24||52.373||37.185||32.5||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION|
|2008-01-28||George W. Bush||37.515||27.702||24.7||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO**, UNIVISION|
|2007-01-24||45.486||32.968||29.6||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION|
|2006-01-31||43.179||30.528||31.2||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, AZTECA AMERICA, TELFUTURA|
|2005-02-02||39.432||28.359||35.3||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, TELEFUTURA|
|2004-01-20||43.411||30.286||28.0||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC|
|2003-01-28||62.061||41.447||38.8||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC|
|2002-01-29||51.773||35.547||33.6||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC|
|2001-02-27||39.793||28.201||27.6||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC|
|2000-01-27||Bill Clinton||31.478||22.536||22.4||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC|
|1999-01-19||43.500||30.700||31.0||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC|
|1998-01-27||53.077||36.513||37.2||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, CNBC|
|1997-02-04||41.100||27.600||28.4||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN|
|1996-01-23||40.900||28.400||29.6||ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN|
|1995-01-24||42.200||28.100||29.5||ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN|
|1994-01-25||45.800||31.000||32.9||ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN|
|1993-02-17||66.900||41.200||44.3||ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN|
- The 1993, 2001, 2009 and 2017 addresses were not, officially, State of the Union addresses, but rather addresses to a joint session of Congress because in those years the presidents were in office for only a few weeks at the time the speech was given.
- ** Tape delayed
- List of joint sessions of the United States Congress
- State Opening of Parliament
- United States presidential address
- "State of the Union Address | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- Diaz, Daniella (February 28, 2017). "Why Trump's Tuesday speech isn't a State of the Union address". CNN. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
- "Ben's Guide to U.S. Government". United States Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on February 25, 2009.
- "31.7 Million Viewers Tune In To Watch Pres. Obama's State of the Union Address". The Nielsen Company (Press release). January 21, 2015.
On Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015, President Barack Obama delivered his annual State of the Union address. The address was carried live from 9:00 p.m. to 10:15 p.m. on 13 networks and tape-delayed on Univision.
- Vasan Kesavan and J. Gregory Sidak (2002). "The Legislator-In-Chief". William and Mary Law Review. 44 (1). Retrieved June 28, 2012.
- The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications (PDF). Congressional Research Service. January 24, 2014. p. 2.
- Jackson, David (January 11, 2013). "Obama State of the Union set for Feb. 12". USA Today.
- "State of the Union Addresses and Messages: research notes by Gerhard Peters". The American Presidency Project (APP). Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- Peters, Gerhard. "State of the Union Messages". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved September 25, 2006.
- Kolakowski, Michael & Neale, Thomas H. (March 7, 2006). "The President's State of the Union Message: Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service Report for Congress. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
- Robert Yoon, CNN Political Research Director (February 12, 2013). "State of the Union firsts". Retrieved September 29, 2017.
- "The First Evening Annual Message". history.house.gov. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
- Kurlansky, Mark (2004). 1968: The Year That Rocked the World. New York: Ballantine. p. 44. ISBN 0-9659111-4-4.
- Office of the Clerk. Joint Meetings, Joint Sessions, and Inaugurations. House History. United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on January 18, 2011.
- "Address to the nation on the Challenger disaster". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved July 4, 2006.
- Weinraub, Bernard (January 29, 1986). "The Shuttle Explosion: Reagan Postpones State of the Union Speech". The New York Times. p. A9.
- Liptak, Kevin. "Pelosi denies Trump use of House chamber for State of the Union". CNN. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
- Haltiwanger, John. "Trump is right, he's the first president in US history to be disinvited from delivering the State of the Union". Business Insider. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
- Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (January 28, 2019). "Trump to Deliver State of the Union Next Week". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- "Pelosi invites Trump to deliver State of the Union on Feb. 4". POLITICO. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- "Pelosi invites Trump to deliver the State of the Union two days after impeaching him". NBC News. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- Clare Foran. "Trump agrees to deliver State of the Union on February 4". CNN. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- Breuninger, Kevin (December 20, 2019). "Trump accepts Pelosi's invitation to give State of the Union address on Feb. 4". CNBC. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- "Pelosi, Trump Agree to State of the Union Address on Feb. 4". NBC4 Washington. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- "Speaker Boehner Extends President Obama Formal Invitation to Deliver State of the Union Address". Speaker Boehner's Press Office (Press release). January 11, 2011.
- "State of the Union 2015". Speaker Boehner's Press Office (Press release). December 19, 2014.
- "Joint Session of Congress Pursuant to House Concurrent Resolution 228 to Receive a Message from the President" (PDF). Congressional Record: H414. January 27, 2010.
- "President Delivers State of the Union Address" (Transcript). CNN. January 28, 2008.
- "Joint Session of Congress Pursuant to House Concurrent Resolution 228 to Receive a Message from the President" (PDF). Congressional Record: H415. January 27, 2010.
- Roberts, Roxanne (September 20, 2016). "The truth behind the 'designated survivor,' the president of the post-apocalypse". Washington Post. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- Schultheis, Emily (February 28, 2017). "Joint session 2017: The history of the "designated survivor"". CBS News. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- Oritz, Erik (January 30, 2018). "Designated survivors recount nights as doomsday presidents". NBC News. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- Epstein, Jennifer (January 13, 2011). "Mark Udall wants parties together at State of the Union". Politico.
- Hennessey, Kathleen (January 21, 2012). "Rival parties to mix it up – nicely – at State of the Union". Los Angeles Times.
- Widmer, Ted (January 31, 2006). "The State of the Union Is Unreal". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
- Desjardins, Lisa (January 30, 2018). "The word nearly every president uses to describe the state of the union". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- Arrigo, Anthony F. (February 4, 2019). "Look out for the 'Skutnik' during Trump's State of the Union". The Conversation US. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- O'Keefe, Ed (January 24, 2012). "Three decades of 'Skutniks' began with a federal employee". Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- Wiggin, Addison (January 25, 2011). "Small Business Owners Should Be Obama's Lenny Skutnik". Forbes. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- Clines, Francis X. (August 24, 1996). "Bonding as New Political Theater: Bring On the Babies and Cue the Yellow Dog". The New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- Office of the Clerk. "Opposition Responses to State of the Union Messages (1966–Present)". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
- Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York: Basic Books. p. 47. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
- Sincere, Richard E., Jr. (February 1997). "O.J., J.C., and Bill: Reflections on the State of the Union". Metro Herald. Archived from the original on July 31, 2002. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
Watts told his audience—about 100 high school students from the CloseUp Foundation watched in person, while a smaller number watched on television at home—that he is 'old enough to remember the Jim Crow' laws that affected him and his family while he grew up in a black neighborhood in small-town Oklahoma.
- Kumar, Anita (January 28, 2010). "Virginia Gov. McDonnell gives Republican Party response to State of the Union". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- York, Byron (January 21, 2004). "The Democratic Response You Didn't See". National Review. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
And then there was the Spanish-language response—the first ever—delivered by New Mexico governor, and former Clinton energy secretary, Bill Richardson.
- "Michele Bachmann offers Tea Party response to President Obama's State of the Union Address". The Washington Post. January 26, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "UNH State of the University 2015". The University of New Hampshire (Press release). February 17, 2015.
- "State of the University 2015". Santa Clara University (Press release). February 19, 2015.
- Goldman, Jeremy (January 20, 2015). "Why Your Company Deserves a 'State of the Union' Address". Inc.
- "EU has survived economic crisis, Barroso says in first State of Union address". EUobserver.com. September 7, 2010.
- "Monroe Doctrine (1823)". ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- "The Four Freedoms were goals first articulated by Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "The Four Freedoms". Four Freedoms Park Conservancy. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- "State of the Union Message to Congress". Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- "President Lyndon Johnson's 1964 State of the Union Address called for a war on poverty - LBJ Presidential Library". www.lbjlibrary.org. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "Trump says his meeting with North Korea's Kim will be held in Hanoi". cnbc.com.
- "Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum". www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "President Delivers State of the Union Address". georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "2019 State of The Union Address TV Ratings". Nielsen. February 6, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "2018 State of The Union Address TV Ratings". Nielsen. January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- "2017 State of The Union Address TV Ratings". Nielsen. February 28, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- "2016 State of The Union Address TV Ratings". Nielsen. January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to State of the Union.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- The American Presidency Project: State of the Union Messages "Established in 1999 as a collaboration between John Woolley and Gerhard Peters at the University of California, Santa Barbara," currently (January 2010), the APP "archives contain 87,448 documents related to the study of the Presidency".
- State of the Union videos and transcripts at C-SPAN (since 1945)
- State of the Union (Visualizations, statistical analysis, and searchable texts)
- State of the Union Addresses of American Presidents (1790–2002) (in downloadable electronic file formats)
- State of the Union Addresses of American Presidents (1790–2006) (HTML format)
- Searchable visualizations of all State of the Union Addresses of American Presidents (1790–2009)
- The State of the Union text and PDF at U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) from January 28, 1992 to current date
- Top 10 State of the Union Addresses, RealClearPolitics.com
- on YouTube (1:01:02)