Swamp

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A freshwater swamp in Florida, the United States of America

A swamp is a wetland that is forested.[1] Swamps are considered to be transition zones because both land and water play a role in creating this environment.[2] Swamps range in size and are located all around the world. The water of a swamp may be fresh water, brackish water or seawater. Freshwater swamps form along large rivers or lakes where they are critically dependent upon rainwater and seasonal flooding to maintain natural water level fluctuations.[2][3] Saltwater swamps are found along tropical and subtropical coastlines.[4] Some swamps have hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodic inundation[5] or soil saturation. The two main types of swamp are "true" or swamp forests and "transitional" or shrub swamps. In the boreal regions of Canada, the word swamp is colloquially used for what is more correctly termed a bog, fen, or muskeg. Some of the world's largest swamps are found along major rivers such as the Amazon, the Mississippi, and the Congo.[6]

Differences between marshes and swamps[edit]

Difference between swamp and marsh

Swamps and marshes are specific types of wetlands that form along waterbodies containing rich, hydric soils.[7] Marshes are wetlands, continually or frequently flooded by nearby running bodies of water, that are dominated by emergent soft stem vegetation and herbaceous plants. Swamps are wetlands consisting of saturated soils or standing water and are dominated by water tolerant woody vegetation such as shrubs, bushes, and trees.[8][4] Swamps generally have more open water area and are much deeper than marshes.[citation needed]

Hydrology[edit]

Swamps are characterized by their saturated soils and slow moving waters.[8] The water that accumulates in swamps comes from a variety of sources including precipitation, groundwater, tides and/or freshwater flooding.[4] These hydrologic pathways all contribute to how energy and nutrients flow in and out of the ecosystem. As water flows through the swamp, nutrients, sediment and pollutants are naturally filtered out. Chemicals like phosphorus and nitrogen that end up in our waterways get absorbed and used by the aquatic plants within the swamp, purifying the water. Any remaining or excess chemicals present will accumulate at the bottom of the swamp, being removed from the water and buried within the sediment.[2] The biogeochemical environment of a swamp is dependent on its hydrology, affecting the levels and availability of resources like oxygen, nutrients, water pH and toxicity, which will influence the whole ecosystem.[4]

Values and ecosystem services[edit]

Swamps and other wetlands have traditionally held a very low property value compared to fields, prairies, or woodlands. They have a reputation for being unproductive land that cannot easily be utilized for human activities, other than perhaps hunting and trapping. Farmers, for example, typically drained swamps next to their fields so as to gain more land usable for planting crops. In reality, swamps play an important ecological role in our environment and provide a variety of resources that we depend on. Swamps and other wetlands are used as a tool in flood management. In circumstances of flooding, swamps absorb and use the excess water within the wetland, preventing it from traveling and protecting surrounding areas from flooding.[2] Dense vegetation within the swamp also provides structure to the land, holding sediment in place and preventing erosion and land loss. Swamps are critically important to providing fresh water and oxygen to all life, and they are often breeding grounds for a wide variety of species. Floodplain swamps are extremely important in fish production.[9] Two thirds of global fish and shellfish are commercially harvested and dependent on wetlands.[2]

Impacts and conservation[edit]

Historically, humans have been know to drain and/or fill swamps and other wetlands in order to create more space for human development and to reduce the threat of diseases borne by swamp insects. Wetlands are removed and replaced with land that is then used for things like agriculture, real estate, and recreational uses. Many swamps have also undergone intensive logging and farming, requiring the construction of drainage ditches and canals. These ditches and canals contributed to drainage and, along the coast, allowed salt water to intrude, converting swamps to marsh or even to open water.[1] Large areas of swamp were therefore lost or degraded. Louisiana provides a classic example of wetland loss from these combined factors.[10] Europe has probably lost nearly half its wetlands.[11] New Zealand lost 90 percent of its wetlands over a period of 150 years.[12] Ecologists recognize that swamps provide valuable ecological services including flood control, fish production, water purification, carbon storage, and wildlife habitats[1]. In many parts of the world authorities protect swamps. In parts of Europe and North America, swamp restoration projects are becoming widespread.[3][13] The United States government began enforcing stricter laws and management programs in the 1970's in efforts to protect and restore these valuable ecosystems.[2] Often the simplest steps to restoring swamps involve plugging drainage ditches and removing levees.[1]

Conservationists work to preserve swamps such as those in northwest Indiana in the United States Midwest that were preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes.[14][15][16]

Notable examples[edit]

Swamps can be found on all continents except Antarctica.[17]

The largest swamp in the world is the Amazon River floodplain, which is particularly significant for its large number of fish and tree species.[18][19][20]

Africa[edit]

The Sudd and the Okavango Delta[21][22][23] are Africa's best known marshland areas. The Bangweulu Floodplains make up Africa's largest swamp.

Asia[edit]

Marsh Arabs poling a mashoof

The Tigris-Euphrates river system[24] is a large swamp and river system in southern Iraq, traditionally inhabited in part by the Marsh Arabs.

In Asia, tropical peat swamps are located in mainland East Asia and Southeast Asia. In Southeast Asia, peatlands are mainly found in low altitude coastal and sub-coastal areas and extend inland for distance more than 100 km (62 mi) along river valleys and across watersheds. They are mostly to be found on the coasts of East Sumatra, Kalimantan (Central, East, South and West Kalimantan provinces), West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Brunei, Peninsular Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Southeast Thailand, and the Philippines (Riley et al.,1996). Indonesia has the largest area of tropical peatland. Of the total 440,000 km2 (170,000 sq mi) tropical peat swamp, about 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi) are located in Indonesia (Page, 2001; Wahyunto, 2006).

The Vasyugan Swamp is a large swamp in the western Siberia area of the Russian Federation. This is one of the largest swamps in the world, covering an area larger than Switzerland.

North America[edit]

Swamp in southern Louisiana

The Atchafalaya Swamp at the lower end of the Mississippi River is the largest swamp in the United States. It is an important example of southern cypress swamp[25] but it has been greatly altered by logging, drainage and levee construction.[26] Other famous swamps in the United States are the forested portions of the Everglades, Okefenokee Swamp, Barley Barber Swamp, Great Cypress Swamp and the Great Dismal Swamp. The Okefenokee is located in extreme southeastern Georgia and extends slightly into northeastern Florida. The Great Cypress Swamp is mostly in Delaware but extends into Maryland on the Delmarva Peninsula. Point Lookout State Park on the southern tip of Maryland contains a large amount of swamps and marshes. The Great Dismal Swamp lies in extreme southeastern Virginia and extreme northeastern North Carolina. Both are National Wildlife Refuges. Another swamp area, Reelfoot Lake of extreme western Tennessee and Kentucky, was created by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes. Caddo Lake, the Great Dismal and Reelfoot are swamps that are centered at large lakes. Swamps are often called bayous in the southeastern United States, especially in the Gulf Coast region.

List of major swamps[edit]

Inside a mangrove canopy, Salt Pan Creek, New South Wales

The world's largest wetlands include significant areas of swamp, such as in the Amazon and Congo River basins.[20] Further north, however, the largest wetlands are bogs.

Africa[edit]

Asia[edit]

Europe[edit]

A black alder swamp in Germany

North America[edit]

South America[edit]

Pantanal in Brazil

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Keddy, P.A. 2010. Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 497 p.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Society, National Geographic (2011-01-21). "swamp". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2019-09-26.
  3. ^ a b Hughes, F.M.R. (ed.). 2003. The Flooded Forest: Guidance for policy makers and river managers in Europe on the restoration of floodplain forests. FLOBAR2, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. 96 p.
  4. ^ a b c d Mitsch,W.J., & Gosselink, J.G.(2015). Wetlands. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  5. ^ Swamp Archived 2007-06-10 at the Wayback Machine (from glossary web page of the United States Geological Survey)
  6. ^ Keddy, P.A., L.H. Fraser, A.I. Solomeshch, W.J. Junk, D.R. Campbell, M.T.K. Arroyo and C.J.R. Alho. 2009. Wet and wonderful: the world's largest wetlands are conservation priorities. BioScience 59: 39–51.
  7. ^ "Swamps". Nature Works- New Hampshire PBS.
  8. ^ a b "Classification and Types of Wetlands". EPA.
  9. ^ Lowe-McConnell, R. H. (1975). Fish Communities in Tropical Fresh waters: Their Distribution, Ecology and Evolution. London: Long man
  10. ^ Keddy, P.A., D. Campbell, T. McFalls, G. Shaffer, R. Moreau, C. Dranguet, and R. Heleniak. 2007. The wetlands of lakes Pontchartrain and Maurepas: past, present and future. Environmental Reviews 15: 1- 35.
  11. ^ Dugan, P. (ed.) 2005. Guide to Wetlands. Buffalo, New York. Firefly Books. 304 p.
  12. ^ Peters, M. and Clarkson, B. 2010. Wetland Restoration: A Handbook for New Zealand Freshwater Systems. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, N.Z. ISBN 978-0-478-34707-4 (online)
  13. ^ Environment Canada. 2004. How Much Habitat is Enough? A Framework for Guiding Habitat Rehabilitation in Great Lakes Areas of Concern. 2nd ed. 81 p.
  14. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2006). Alice Gray, Dorothy Buell, and Naomi Svihla: Preservationists of Ogden Dunes. The South Shore Journal, 1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-13. Retrieved 2012-06-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2009). The Historical Roots of the Nature Conservancy in the Northwest Indiana/Chicagoland Region: From Science to Preservation. The South Shore Journal, 3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-01. Retrieved 2015-11-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2007). The cultural impact of a museum in a small community: The Hour Glass of Ogden Dunes. The South Shore Journal, 2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-11-30. Retrieved 2012-06-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ Hunter, Malcolm L. (1999). Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-0521637688.
  18. ^ Goulding, M. (1980). The Fishes and the Forest: Explorations in Amazonian Natural History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  19. ^ Lowe-McConnell, R. H. (1975). Fish Communities in Tropical Freshwaters: Their Distribution, Ecology and Evolution. London: Longman
  20. ^ a b L.H. Fraser and P.A. Keddy (eds.). 2005. The World's Largest Wetlands: Ecology and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 488 p.
  21. ^ a b Brennan, Zoe (2006-06-24). "The superlions marooned on an island". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  22. ^ a b Main, Douglas (2013-11-26). "Photos: The Biggest Lions on Earth". Live Science. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  23. ^ a b "Lions of the Okavango". Siyabona Africa. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  24. ^ Daoudy, Marwa (2005). Le Partage des Eaux entre la Syrie, l'Irak et la Turquie (in French). CNRS. pp. 1–269. ISBN 2-271-06290-X. Retrieved 2016-04-06.
  25. ^ Conner, W. H. and Buford, M. A. (1998). Southern deepwater swamps. In Southern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management, eds. M. G. Messina and W. H. Conner, pp. 261–87. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.
  26. ^ Reuss, M. (1998). Designing the Bayous: The Control of Water in the Atchafalaya Basin 1800–1995. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Office of History.
  27. ^ "India wild tiger census shows population rise". BBC News. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  28. ^ Nowell, K.; Jackson, P., eds. (1996). "Panthera Onca". Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. IUCN. pp. 118–302. Retrieved 2015-09-07.

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