Victor Gardthausen

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Victor Emil Gardthausen (26 August 1843 – 27 December 1925) was a German ancient historian, palaeographer, librarian, and Professor from Leipzig University. He was author and co-author of some books; editor of ancient texts.[1]


Gardthausen was born on 26 August 1843 at Copenhagen.[1]

Between 1865 and 1869 Gardthausen studied philology in Kiel and Bonn. In Kiel Alfred von Gutschmid was his professor.[1] After the Franco-Prussian War he was sent to Italy and Greece for palaeographical research. In 1873 he started work at the Leipziger Stadtbibliothek and from 1875 at the Leipzig University Library.[1] From 1877 he was an extraordinary professor for ancient history. In 1887/1888 he was active again as a university librarian, becoming the main librarian in 1901. In 1907 he left the library service.

Gardthausen died on 27 December 1925 in Leipzig.[1]

He examined Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Boernerianus, Uspenski Gospels, manuscripts housed in the monastery at Sinai among many others. According to him, the Codex Sinaiticus was written in Alexandria[2] and is younger than the Codex Vaticanus by at least fifty years.[3] According to him, the Uspenski Gospels were seen by Johann Martin Augustin Scholz when he visited Mar Saba.[4] Gardthausen dated Codex Boernerianus to the years 850-900 A.D. The evidence for this date range includes the style of the script, the smaller uncial letters in Greek, the Latin interlinear written in Anglo-Saxon minuscule and the separation of words.[5] He investigated the nomina sacra.[6] Gardthausen stated: "Ist die Handschrift gefunden, so orientiert man durch eine detaillierte Beschreibung, die im Verlaufe der Arbeit durch Beispiele vervollständigt wird" (Any intensive study of a manuscript begins with a detailed description, which in the course of its study is completed through illustration).[7] The main work of Gardthausen is "Griechische Paläographie" (Greek palaeography); the first edition appeared in 1879, the second in 1911/1913. It was the most important work since the time of Bernard de Montfaucon.[8] It remains a standard work until to the present day.[9]


  • Die geographischen Quellen Ammians Probevortrag; Montag den 20. Januar 1873, Leipzig, 1873.
  • Ammianus Marcellinus (1874), Gardthausen, V. (ed.), Ammiani Marcellini Rerum Gestarum Libri Qui Supersunt (in Latin), Prius, B.G. Teubneri
  • Mastara oder Servius Tullius: Mit einer Einleitung über die Ausdehnung des Etruskerreiches, Leipzig, 1882.
  • Augustus und seine zeit, 2 vol., Leipzig, 1861-1904.
  • Catalogus codicum Graecorum Sinaiticorum. Oxford. 1886.
  • Sammlungen und Cataloge griechischer Handschriften, Leipzig, 1903.
  • Der Altar des Kaiserfriedens, Ara Pacis Augustae, Leipzig, 1908.
  • M. Vogel − V. Gardthausen, Die griechischen Schreiber des Mittelalters und der Renaissance, Leipzig, 1909.
  • Amtliche Zitate in römischen Urkunden, Berlijn – e.a., 1910.
  • Griechische Paleographie, 1 vol., 2 vol., Leipzig, 1911-1913.
  • Die Schrift, Unterschriften, und chronologie im Altertum und im byzantinischen Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1913.
  • Handbuch der wissenschaftlichen Bibliothekskunde, 2 vol., Leipzig, 1920.
  • Die Alexandrinische Bibliothek, ihr Vorbild, Katalog und Betrieb, Leipzig, 1922.
  • Das alte Monogramm, Leipzig, 1924.
  • Autobiographie, [Leipzig, 1926].


  1. ^ a b c d e Gerhard Baader (1964), "Gardthausen, Victor Emil", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 6, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 71–72
  2. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. (1991). Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-19-502924-6.
  3. ^ Victor Gardthausen, Griechische Paleographie, 2 vol., Leipzig, 1913, p. 124–125.
  4. ^ Victor Gardthausen, Beiträge zur griechischen Paläographie (1877), p. 184
  5. ^ Victor Gardthausen, Griechische Paläographie. Leipzig 1879. p. 271, 428 and 166; see also. H. Marsh, Comments. . to J. D. Michaelis' Introduction. I. p. 263
  6. ^ Victor Gardthausen, Griechische paleographie, 2 vol., Leipzig, 1913, p. 325–327.
  7. ^ David C. Parker, An Introduction to the NT Manuscripts and Their Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 91.
  8. ^ W. Wattenbach, Anleitung zur griechischen Palaeographie (Leipzig 1895), p. 4.
  9. ^ Metzger, Bruce M.; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration. New York – Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-516122-9. Archived from the original on 2013-10-13. Retrieved 2017-09-09.

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